Live Indonesian for the capable from Lera Mulina

Live Indonesian
This is not a textbook that will provide you with systematic knowledge of the Indonesian language. It is a collection of lessons that can be read sequentially or selectively, depending on the topics that are important to you.
It is designed for those who want to deepen their knowledge of specific vocabulary or grammar topics. In each lesson, I have tried to provide a maximum amount of vocabulary related to the stated theme. Therefore, if you are interested in how to express yourself in certain situations and which words to use when communicating with Indonesians, the provided vocabulary should be sufficient.
I do not claim any academic, pedagogical, or scientific rigor in these lessons. They are created in a way that I would make them for my friends who have come to Bali and asked to be taught the basics of Indonesian to communicate effortlessly with people we encounter every day. These lessons are quite subjective, although my knowledge is based on five textbooks through which I learned Indonesian.
Dialogues in most situations are either real or tested in real situations while communicating with Indonesians from Bali, Java, or Sulawesi. This is 100% authentic Indonesian.
Table of contents:
Lesson 1:
A Dozen Useful Tips and a Bit About Love (Why and How to Learn Indonesian)
I don't think I'll reinvent the wheel in this post. But I hope that the tips, gathered with a focus on learning the Indonesian language, will help you mobilize. Perhaps they will encourage you to take the first step in learning the language, or maybe a more determined one if you've already started.
Lesson 2:
Addressing People
Which words to use when addressing someone in Indonesia? I deliberately omit typical Balinese forms of address used only in Bali. The list includes words used throughout Indonesia.
Lesson 3:
There is one wonderful word in the Indonesian language. And if you learn its combinations with other words, you can express greetings or congratulate someone perfectly and succinctly. Today, the spotlight is on the word "selamat."
Lesson 4:
Ya, ibu! Language incidents
Lesson 5:
Buying Juice
This lesson is dedicated to shopping. In this lesson, we will be buying fruit juices. It's silly to hide that sooner or later, most Russian tourists inevitably go through this experience.
Lesson 6:
Road Signs and Signboards
As we drive through the streets of Indonesia, we see various signboards. For a brief moment, the meaning catches our interest. You think you'd like to check later what it translates to. But a second passes, someone distracts you, a conversation starts, and the word or sign is forgotten. Meanwhile, information that there's a dentist a hundred meters from your home or a place to print files might come in handy.
Lesson 7:
I'm Lost! How to Find a Guesthouse?
You are on one of the islands in Indonesia, not yet particularly familiar to you. The battery is dead – the navigator on your phone won't help anymore. The power bank is left at home. It's late evening, you're tired, and you really want to find a hotel or guesthouse. Everyone you meet along the way freezes when they hear English. The paper map is at hand, but it's not particularly helpful. Nothing to be done. You'll have to use your entire arsenal of Indonesian, whatever it may be.
Lesson 8:
Buying Fruits and Vegetables at the Market
One of the wonders of Indonesia, especially Bali, is that here you can buy a variety of fruits and vegetables all year round. If you're determined to stop buying them in supermarkets and want to experience something new at the market, this lesson is for you. It's also for those who want to test their vocabulary on this topic and make sure they're armed with words.
Lesson 9:
Buying Clothes. Vocabulary and Little Secrets
This lesson is for true enthusiasts of Indonesian extremes. For those who reject the wonderful opportunity to buy clothes in stores with fixed prices and English-speaking salespeople. For those who are ready to immerse themselves in shopping at an ordinary clothing market. Here, I present a dozen secrets that can make the process of finding the best price less nerve-wracking. As usual, I don't reinvent the wheel and tip my hat to those who effortlessly haggle prices for local carpets from $5,000 to $50 at Arabic markets.
Lesson 10:
All Types of Questions About Home
What if you found what seems to be a good option for renting a house, but the owner doesn't speak English or speaks very poorly? How do you inquire about the house? How do you ask all the questions you're interested in? As usual, let's not hesitate and take Indonesian seriously. In this lesson, we'll go through all types of questions using the topic of homes and related situations as examples.
Lesson 11:
Vocabulary Related to Home and a Dialogue with the Landlord
As promised in the previous lesson, we are now studying vocabulary on the theme of "home" and reading a dialogue about Ivan, who is renting a house from a Balinese aunt.
Lesson 12:
Dining Out
In this lesson, you'll learn what "cat rice" is and what it's made of, as well as which Indonesian dish was named the most delicious in the world according to CNN.
Finally, after several hungry lessons following the one dedicated to buying juice, we return to a topic that is close to everyone's stomach. This lesson will help you navigate if you decide to go to a dining establishment in Indonesia where the staff doesn't speak English. I won't dissuade you, probably because after experiencing India, any restaurants, eateries, Padang food stalls, and warungs don't seem as intimidating anymore.
Lesson 13:
What Time Is It? At What Time?
It is quite natural that in our time, people adorned with iPhones, Apple Watches, Blackberries, and Androids don't really need to ask a passing Indonesian, "What time is it?" But the necessity of agreeing on a meeting time still exists. So today, we are exploring ways to indicate time in the Indonesian language. Unfortunately, knowing what time to schedule a meeting with your Indonesian acquaintance won't guarantee that they will actually show up on time. In Indonesian, there's even a term for this phenomenon – "jam karet" (rubber hour) – delay, procrastination, dragging, basically, stretchy rubber time. Nevertheless, it's worth a try.
Lesson 14: Villa Names
How often, living in Bali, actively moving around the island, or reading communities on social networks, do you come across villa names? Are you interested in whether you can translate all villa names containing Indonesian words? If yes, then this lesson is for you.
Lesson 15: Tenses. Dates
Good news for those who haven't fully grasped Indonesian tenses – in the Indonesian language, they don't exist. In the sense that verbs don't change based on tenses, and the time of an event is expressed using auxiliary words.
Lesson 16: Past Tense and a Visit to the Internet Provider's Service Center
For those who may have been overwhelmed by the abundance of information on the topic of tenses in the previous lesson – a lesson on the past tense. From this, you'll understand that the devil is not as scary as he seemed at first glance.
Lesson 17: Present Tense. News. Activities During the Day
Today, we will focus on learning words that indicate that an action is happening right now. Although the richness of these words often gives them the opportunity to not only indicate the present tense but also to talk about many other things. But let's take it step by step.
Lesson 18: Family and Numerous Relatives
When introducing members of your family in Indonesian, you'll undoubtedly need to know how to name their position in the family. It's one thing to say husband, wife, children. But it's a bit more challenging to name a brother-in-law, sister-in-law, brother-in-law, or sister-in-law.
Lesson 19: Don't Get Sick!
I can't even imagine how I could have missed such an important topic.
Lesson 20: Future Tense
Continuing for quite a few lessons now, we are dealing with what doesn't exist in the Indonesian language – namely, tenses. Today is very straightforward. We are learning words that indicate that some action will happen in the future.
Lesson 21: About Life and Death in One Word
Let's move on to the ultimate question of all times and peoples, poets, writers, and philosophers – the question of life and death. If you are personally indifferent to this question and its discussion, or if you are very sensitive to this topic for any reason, it's better not to read the next lesson.
Lesson 22: Bouncing Squirrels, Shy Kittens, Land Crocodiles, and Other People
Even if we are not ardent animal lovers, whether or not we have pets, or whether we visit zoos, safaris, bird parks with our children or not – animals in Indonesia surround us everywhere. In this lesson, we will talk about the names of animals. Those that are found in Indonesia. And those that can be found in the characters of its people.
Lesson 23: Announcements and Signs
Can you translate the content of all warning or prohibition signs in Indonesian that you see around you? Or only those that are duplicated in English? And if there is some useful information on them? Even if not always, signs and their translations are an opportunity to practice Indonesian and expand your vocabulary. From this lesson, you'll learn in which store and under what conditions customers are offered to purchase products for free. You'll also be able to find translations of signs that you have probably seen repeatedly but haven't paid attention to.
Lesson 24: One and Only Lesson
Certainly, among those who want to learn Indonesian, there are many who want to master it while vacationing in Bali. Not many have the time and desire to learn it for a long time, seriously, and thoughtfully. But there is a desire to master the most commonly used words that may come in handy in everyday situations. If you are one of these people, this lesson is for you. If you grasp familiar words well, you will only need to spend a few hours on this lesson to "grasp" the basics of the Indonesian language. Perhaps, by diving so quickly into learning Indonesian, you will understand how simple it is and dedicate a bit more time later to enrich your vocabulary or explore the surprisingly simple grammar. Good luck in your studies!
LESSON 1: A dozen useful tips and a little about love
I don't think I'll reinvent the wheel in this post. But I hope that the tips gathered here for learning the Indonesian language will help you mobilize. Perhaps they will prompt you to take the first or another, but more decisive step in learning the language.
I didn't study the Indonesian language at university or on courses. I don't have a diploma related to Indonesian language studies. I've never had a teacher for Indonesian.
From the first days in Bali, I decided to start speaking Indonesian. I flipped through textbooks, finding topics related to my daily needs. I installed apps with Indonesian-English dictionaries on my smartphone. I didn't hesitate to dive into the dictionary or ask Indonesians about the differences between certain words.
In four years, I could have achieved significant results if my love for Indonesian were more stable. But I have never regretted spending time learning it.
Every hour, every minute spent on learning a new field makes our brain work better. And each new learned word weaves into the network of others, allowing us to learn each subsequent language faster than the first.
Indonesian has many words borrowed from Arabic, Hindi, Dutch, Portuguese, and, of course, English. If you know any of these languages or plan to learn them later, you will find it very intriguing to discover connections with Indonesian words.
1. There is no point in memorizing words. The point is in their use
Make it a habit to use at least one new short Indonesian phrase or new word per day. Something you haven't used yet. Imagine what events will await you during the day and what you will be able to use. Take a phrase from the lessons in the textbook or create one yourself.
If you're having trouble "getting" into a situation where you can use a new word or phrase, create one yourself. Ask the person on the street what time it is, greet him, ask him where the nearest gas station or beach is.
Here's something you can feel free to use right off the bat in a conversation with any Indonesian you meet:
Selamat pagi! - Good morning!
Selamat siang! - Good afternoon!
Selamat sore! - Good afternoon! – sore daylight hours from approximately 15.00 to sunset
Selamat malam! - Good evening! – malam – all the dark time of the day
Apa kabar? – (what, news) How are you?
Mau ke mana? - (want, to, what) Where are you going? – in Indonesia this is a completely normal greeting
Sekarang jam berapa? - (now, hour, what time) What time is it?
Apakah ini jalan ke pantai? – (is, this, the, road, to, the beach) Is this the road to the beach?
Don't wait until you have accumulated enough vocabulary to start speaking the language. You can learn some simple phrases in less than a minute. In the beginning, the response of a random person on the street is not as important as your question and attempt.
2. Don't memorize words. Learn word combinations and phrases
I still get the Finnish phrases from the dialogues that my dad and I learned when I was ten years old. More than 20 years have passed since then, I haven’t spoken Finnish for 15 years, but the words from the dialogues are firmly imprinted in my memory.
3. Use Indonesian words to memorize
Indonesian has many complete and incomplete homophonic words.
If you come up with phrases that create vivid or absurd images in your mind, you will remember the words faster.
Phrases like:
Wet tramp (basah - wet)
Rubber carriage (karet - rubber)
Have breakfast with a sundress (sarapan - breakfast)
Hero with baklava (pahlawan – hero)
Watchman-Yaga (jaga – guard, guard)
Cheap murah (murah – cheap)
Just a plague (cuma – just, only)
Bitch-love (suka – to love, love (closer to “to sympathize”, “to sympathize” or the English “like”)
Angry hussar (gusar - angry)
Series about the blue throne (sinetron - series)
Face in flour (muka - face)
Hey horse, where are you going? (kuda - horse)
Create memorable absurdity.
4. Learn opposite words together
To remember “left-right” I remembered them with one word kirikanan. I simply imagined this word in front of me, read it and on the left was kiri, and on the right was kanan.
Sini - here and sana - there were also easy to remember. I said sini very quietly, imagining the person I was talking to next to me. Then I imagined someone very far away and visualized how long and loud I was trying to shout to him saaa-naaa!
Learn words with their opposites, but don't learn words with their consonants.
Muda - tua (mudatua) = young - old. At first a person is young, then he grows old. By memorizing two words in this order, you will not confuse them.
Mudah - susah (mudahsusah) = simple - complex. When learning something, a person moves from simple to complex. This order will also help not to confuse the adjectives.
Pendek – tinggi (pendektinggi) = low – high. In the process of life, a tree grows from a small sprout into a tall and powerful giant.
Sempit – lebar (sempitlebar) = narrow – wide. From a narrow source, traveling for kilometers, the river turns into a wide stream at the mouth.
Murah - mahal (murakhmahal) = cheap - expensive. You can use the previous approach, or you can use sound associations.
But never learn the words muda, mudah, murah together. Take a break of several days between them and move on to a consonant word when you have consolidated the previous one.
If you decide to drive a gullible student crazy, make him learn muda (young), mudah (simple), murah (cheap), and also merah (red), marah (angry) and madah (praise) all at once.
Place opposites in the correct order.
5. When talking about something very simple, mentally translate it into Indonesian
If you don't know a word, look it up in the dictionary. If your eye falls on some simple object in the house and you don’t know its name, look in a dictionary and find out its Indonesian translation. Start with the simplest things.
When you are going to answer someone: “Yes, I will eat,” try to mentally translate this phrase: “Ya, saya (aku) akan makan.” Or “Yes, I’m hungry” “Ya, saya (aku) mau makan.”
When you are about to ask, “What will you (eat)?”, try to mentally translate: “(Kamu) mau makan apa?”
When you are going to check whether the food is sweet, mentally translate “Apakah makanan ini manis?” (li, food, this, sweet) or “Apakah ini manis?” or “Ini manis?” or even "Manis?" remembering that in spoken language all variants have the right to be used.
Try to put new language clothes on reality. When studying existing vocabulary (relating to surrounding objects), associate cups and plates with those that surround you.
Walk around your home and translate the names of objects you don't yet know into Indonesian. Translate the names of items in your home that may break or whose names you may need suddenly and as quickly as possible.
Apar - fire extinguisher
Meteran - electric meter
Kabel - wire
Kran air - water tap
Pipa air - water pipe
Bor – drill
Obeng - screwdriver
Palu – hammer
Paku - nail
Tang - pliers
Obat - medicine
Termometer - thermometer
Penyumbat telinga – earplugs
Students engaged in immersion learning in schools that followed the Berlitz method. In the 1950s and 60s, followers of Maximilian Berlitz discovered that their students learned faster when they stopped using grammar textbooks and simply started speaking the language on the very first day of the course.
Students learned the language through intensive immersion in meaningful situations. They could "sit down for lunch," and the teacher could hand them plates and food while describing them. The idea was to first grasp key phrases and words, while mastering grammar unconsciously in the process. So, I haven't revealed anything new to you, except for the names of the counter, drill, and hammer. Dress the world in Indonesian attire.
6. If you are comfortable with English and have a smartphone, find a free Indonesian-English dictionary
I downloaded several dictionaries to my Android. I searched Google Play using the keyword kamusku.
Kamus – dictionary
Kamusku – my dictionary
Hati – liver. But oddly enough, in romantic poetry it is translated into foreign languages ​​as “heart”. Hatiku is my heart.
Hatimu is your heart. By the way, heart in Indonesian is jantung. But Indonesians often grab their hearts when they hear the word “hatiku.”
Cinta – romantic or passionate love between two people
Cintaku is my favorite. Cintamu is your love.
Sayang is a more tender love felt for children and family members. Sayangku is my love. Sayangmu is your love.
Kasih is a more caring love, felt for people outside the family circle and for anything in general. In principle, you can love the whole world with such love. Kasihku is my love. Kasihmu is your love.
Suka – love
It seems I got carried away with love and forgot about dictionaries. Let's return to applications.
Kamusku is a free dictionary that translates from English to Indonesian and vice versa.
There are a couple of such dictionaries:
Kamus Offline
Kamusku: Inggris
Kamus: Inggris-Indonesia
They are all good and all can be used.
7. If you are at home, tired as hell and don’t want anything at all, try learning Indonesian
There are a certain number of audio courses on the Internet that can be downloaded from torrents and used at different stages of learning Indonesian.
There is a good audio course on the website The main secret is not to turn on the audio and go about your business hoping that it will somehow stick in your memory but to listen attentively to every word. It's like trying a new dish and trying to savor its taste.
Repeatedly listening to phrases and sentences in Indonesian will allow your brain to memorize constructions. Moreover, these constructions will be pronounced correctly and clearly. It is believed that in "listening mode," 70-80% of the words from the dialogues will remain in memory. During the listening process, repeat the phrases after the announcer, first looking at the text, and then without it.
The final stage of working with the audio course is to record words and expressions that seem useful to you in everyday life. If you have no energy or desire to do anything, listen to audio courses.
8. At first you will make mistakes. And the second time you will do them. And on the third ones too
Fortunately, Indonesians are generally patient people. They will tolerate your mistakes with condescension and encourage your attempts to speak Bahasa. Don't expect them to correct you or laugh if you make a mistake. Instead, in response to a foreigner's mistake, a local will either politely remain silent or tactfully smile.
Stop being afraid of your mistakes. Stop being afraid that speaking with mistakes will make you look funny in the eyes of those around you. Yes, it will, by the way. You will look funny. Teach yourself to enjoy this role of a comedian playing the role of a beginner student.
If you're not actually a student at a university and not receiving grades for flawless Indonesian, you have nothing to fear. Any attempt to "get into" the language is already deserving of a passing grade.
Once you learn to speak simply and clearly about most topics and questions, move on to grammar. At first, don't scare yourself with it. Many Indonesians, in principle, do not use grammar extensively.
Once, I hired a team of Balinese workers for tiling work. My Balinese friend, who was quite proficient in English, mainly communicated with them in Balinese. One day he asked me why I felt shy to speak and limited myself to common polite phrases of greetings, thanks, and invitations to the table.
"I feel shy. I don't know Indonesian that well yet."
"Trust me. They know Indonesian even worse than you. They studied it only for a couple of years in school before dropping out. And most likely, they skipped those lessons."
The main goal is not to speak without mistakes but rather to express your thoughts accurately and understand your interlocutor.
9. If you don’t know just one word in a phrase in Indonesian, don’t hesitate
If you don't know one or two words in the Indonesian phrase you want to pronounce, don't hesitate. Replace that word with its English equivalent.
Your interlocutor will either be able to use his English to understand, or will guess from the context what is being said.
Sekolah – School
Universitas – University
Bensin – Gasoline
Nanas – Pineapple
Pensiun – Pension
Mebel – Furniture
Kamera – Camera (фотокамера)
Presiden – President
Direktur — Director
Otomatis – Automatic
Lift – Elevator
Kran – Crane
Produksi – Production
Situasi – Situation
Intonasi – Intonation
Insinuasi — Insinuation
And some words have successfully migrated from English to Indonesian so firmly that Indonesians use them freely, forgetting about their Indonesian counterparts, and even write in English.
Laundry – laundromat. Even though you can write "Cuci pakaian" for washing clothes on signs, the term "laundry" is more commonly used.
Mall – shopping center. The widespread love of city dwellers for malls, where it's not only bright and loud but also cool, has firmly established this word in consciousness.
HP – mobile phone. An abbreviation for handphone. Pronounced as "хапэ". This term is typically used when referring to one's mobile phone.
Security – security guard. Read in English and used very widely.
Print – print, to print. In Indonesian, there is a fine word "cetakan." However, it is powerless compared to the English term "print."
Facebook – fortunately, it is called not "buku muka" but also – Facebook.
Angry birds – not "burung-burung galak" — but also – Angry Birds.
YouTube – not "kamupipa," but the same as our native YouTube.
iPhone – not "akutelpon," but straightforwardly – iPhone.
10. At first, watch films with Indonesian subtitles, listen to humane pop music and read local newspapers
When learning foreign languages, experts usually advise watching more films and TV shows in the language you are learning. In the case of most languages, this advice is one hundred percent effective.
Through experimentation, it has been found that for beginners learning Indonesian, the most humane sources are Hollywood movies with Indonesian subtitles, some mildly traumatic genres of Indonesian pop music, and newspapers covering local and national events.
Dewa, Ungu, Piter Pan, Kotak, Padi, Slank – are relatively safe songs.
Global TV, RCTI, Trans TV – periodic evening screenings of American movies with Indonesian subtitles.
Kompas, Tempo – easily digestible Indonesian newspapers.
Use sources friendly to the brain.
11. Don't expect help from friends and relatives. Be your own main supporter
It is not at all necessary to experiment with your family or friends on switching to speaking Indonesian. If you are a beginner, when talking with friends you will inevitably simplify the language, simplify the thoughts you want to express. And during the experiment, you will stop enjoying the semantic nuances and richness of your native language.
Moreover, in order to conduct an experiment to switch to Indonesian within your family or a group of people, you need the cooperation of several individuals. If someone is busy or slacking off, it will be easier for you to sidestep, justifying it by a lack of like-minded people.
Be your own loyal companion in learning the language. Believe that your own curiosity, inquisitiveness, combined with mental translation, can be sufficient.
Be a trailblazer.
12. Time spent learning Indonesian will not be wasted.
Even if you leave Indonesia after a month or a year and never return, it doesn't mean that you've wasted your time on Indonesian.
By acquiring a new foreign language, you are enhancing the development of your brain. Numerous research results show that people who know several languages maintain better memory and cognitive abilities in their later years.
Let's say you don't believe in the "studies by American scientists" and think that the relationship was actually the other way around. It wasn't the languages that made the elderly more alert; rather, smart seniors had already mastered several languages.
In that case, I'll present the results of a purer experiment. In the Swedish Academy of Young Translators, newcomers are taught an accelerated course in complex languages. They are offered the opportunity to learn Arabic, Russian, or Dari—the language of Afghan Tajiks—in just 13 months.
During the experiment, students studied the language from morning to evening, without weekends, at an intense pace. The focus was not just on active intellectual activity but specifically on learning foreign languages.
As a control group, scientists used students from a medical university. They also studied at a brisk pace, but the subject of their cramming did not involve foreign languages. Both groups underwent MRI scans before the start of the experiment and after three months of active learning.
As a result, the brain structure of the control group remained unchanged. However, in the students who were mastering an unfamiliar language, scientists observed an "increase" in the hippocampus—a deep brain structure responsible for acquiring new knowledge, spatial orientation, and the consolidation of short-term memory into long-term memory.
And here's another pleasant fact. Scientists from the Otto von Guericke University in Magdeburg and their colleagues from Barcelona found (again, using MRI) that memorizing new words activates the "pleasure center" in the brain. According to researchers, the activation of the "pleasure center" helped people develop their language skills throughout evolution.
Can you already feel your pleasure center activating right now? There might be more to come!
Activate your "pleasure center"!
If you have any super-effective turbo methods personally tested by you, please share them! If you find any of my tips controversial, share your disapproval! If you haven't found anything, share nothing! Don't just sit there! Share!
LESSON 2: What words to use when addressing a person in Indonesia?
I purposely exclude typical Balinese expressions used only in Bali. The list includes words used throughout Indonesia.
Ibu — formally and informally to women older than you, the same age, or younger when officially addressing officials, for example. Literally - mother. In the informal version, it can be shortened to bu.
Bapak — formally and informally to men who are older, the same age, or younger when officially addressing. Literally - father. In the informal version, it can be shortened to pak.
Mas — informal address to a man of the same age, slightly younger, or slightly older.
Mbak — informal address to a woman slightly older, younger, or of the same age.
Note: mas and mbak are address forms that originated from Javanese. However, since the capital of Indonesia is located on Java, where Javanese people constitute the ethnic majority, holding key positions in the government and dominating the media, the use of mas and mbak has become universal throughout Indonesia.
Saudara — an informal address to a man of the same age. Literally - brother. Less formal than mas.
Saudari — an informal address to a woman of the same age. Literally - sister. Less formal than mbak.
Saudara-saudari — often used when addressing a large group of people in presentations. Similar to bapak-bapak and ibu-ibu.
Adik — an informal address to someone younger than you, regardless of gender. Literally - younger sibling. More informal than saudara, saudari.
Adik — universally used when addressing a child, regardless of their gender.
Kakak — an informal address to someone older than you, regardless of gender. Literally - older sibling. Less formal than saudara, saudari.
Koko — It is said that in areas with a significant population of ethnic Chinese Indonesians, such as Jakarta, you may hear the term koko, sometimes shortened to ko. It is used in the same way as kakak.
Nyonya — used formally when addressing a woman, such as an official. However, ibu is more universal and is used more frequently, probably because nyonya was historically used to address the Dutch and other foreigners, and subconsciously, it is perceived as too formal. Although now it can be used when addressing Indonesians as well.
Tuan — used formally when addressing a man, such as an official. Bapak is used more often. Similarly, like nyonya, tuan was historically used to address foreigners.
If a woman is very elderly, almost like a grandmother, you can address her as ibu. It is polite.
If a grandfather is very elderly, you can address him as bapak. It is also polite.
Om - literally "uncle". Used when addressing family members. But young children love to use it, and not with their relatives either.
Tante - literally "aunt". Used to refer within the family. But young children often use it outside the family too.
Nenek - literally "grandmother". Used within the family.
Kakek - literally "grandfather". Used within the family.
Pria, laki-laki - man are used to denote gender. They are not used when addressing a person. Pria is usually a sexually mature male.
Lucky-laki for any condition. For example, anak laki-laki is a boy. Anak pria cannot be consumed.
Wanita, perempuan - woman. Used to indicate gender only. Not used to address a person. Moreover, wanita is a sexually mature woman. Perempuan for any condition. For example anak perempuan - girl. Anak wanita should not be consumed.
About the emphasis in these words
Officially, there are no accents in Indonesian. If you propose a word to an Indonesian with stress on the first syllable and then on the last one, they will likely say that both variants are correct. Personally, I rely on my musical ear. When I observe people speaking or accidentally tune in to Indonesian TV channels, in 99% of cases, I personally hear the stress on the last vowel sound. I can recommend sticking to the stress pattern that you hear more frequently in the speech of native speakers with whom you will be conversing.
The consonant "k" at the end of a word is pronounced very lightly, almost like a stop. Words like bapak, pak, mbak, adik, kakak, nenek, kakek.
Nyonya is pronounced as "nyonya."
These are the most common titles and words used to indicate gender. This information is shared based on the words of a group of friendly contemporary Indonesians from Jakarta. If you have any complaints about this post, send them to the village to Grandpa in Jakarta ;)
LESSON 3: About the word SELAMAT in Indonesian
There is one beautiful word in the Indonesian language. And if you learn its combinations with other words, you can beautifully and succinctly express a greeting to your interlocutor or congratulate him.
Today the word selamat is under attack.
If you look in the dictionary, you can find a lot of its meanings:
1) safe
2) well-being, happiness, prosperity
3) joyful, pleasant, blissful
4) congratulations, wishes of good luck and prosperity
It is the last meaning of this word that we will deal with.
Selamat pagi! - Good morning! 6.00 - 10.00 hours
Selamat siang! - Good afternoon! 10.00 - 15.00 hours
Selamat sore! - Good evening! 15.00 - 18.00 hours
Selamat malam! - Good night! 18.00 - 6.00 hours
I'll note that sometimes Indonesians use these time divisions subjectively. For example, I'm walking around the hotel grounds. One porter greets me with "selamat sore" because, apparently, he's tired and it already seems to him that evening has come, and the sun is inclining towards sunset. A few minutes later, another porter greets me with "selamat siang" because he's lively, full of energy, and probably woke up on the right side of the bed that morning.
There is a fairly clear rule regarding "selamat malam." "Malam" is all the dark hours. There's no confusion here.
But if you wake up early in the morning around four and head to the morning market in the dim light before dawn, it's better to use "selamat pagi" for greetings.
Selamat tidur! - Good sleep!
Selamat jalan! - Bon Voyage! Wishes of a good journey to those who are leaving from the side of those remaining.
Selamat tinggal! —Happy stay! Wishing well to the one who stays from the one who is leaving.
Selamat datang! - You are welcome! They say it to a person who arrives at a place for the first time.
Selamat makan! - Bon appetit!
Selamat kerja! - Literally, I would translate this - “it’s a pleasure to work”, as a wish for someone who works.
Selamat Ulang Tahun! - Happy birthday!
Selamat Natal! - Merry Christmas!
Selamat Tahun Baru! - Happy New Year!
Selamat Paskah! - Easter!
Selamat Idul Fitri! — Congratulations on the Muslim holiday of Idul Fitri.
Selamat menempuh hidup baru! - Happy start of a new life! This is how the newlyweds are congratulated at their wedding.
Selamat memulai hidup baru! - The meaning is the same as the previous congratulation, but is used less often.
Selamat hari minggu! - If you go to a Christian service in a church on Sunday, you will hear how, shaking hands after the service, the parishioners greet each other: - Happy Sunday! Or: - Happy Sunday!
And finally, just Selamat! - Congratulations!
Can be used as a catchall word when you want to congratulate someone on a promotion at work, receiving a diploma, or other achievement.
Selamat is pronounced almost exactly the same as it is written. The only vowel “e” is pronounced very fluently and is sometimes almost inaudible. Almost like "slamat".
LESSON 4: Ya, ibu!
Language incidents that arise when the words of a foreign language are similar to the words of yours are very well remembered when learning a language.
The letters in brackets are letters that are pronounced very fluently and are almost inaudible.
h (x) – pronounced with a light aspiration
k (k) – at the end of a word it is pronounced as a slight hesitation
e (е) - in the first syllable of the word it is pronounced very fluently and barely audible, it does not soften the previous consonant and therefore sounds like an average between e and e (empat, enam, gelas, belas, papaya, semangka).
ng n(g) – sounds like a soft nasal n. How is "ng" pronounced if it is followed by another "g".
Seratus - s(e)ratus - one hundred
Seribu - s(e)ribu - one thousand
Belas - b(e)las (BELAZ)
Dunia - dunia (Dunya) - peace
Tanya - tanya (Tanya) - ask
Lidah - lida(x) (Lida) - language
Ludah - lyuda(x) (Luda) - saliva
Raya - Raya - great, big
Timur - Timur - east, eastern
Kira - Kira - to assume
Kira-kira - Kira-kira - approximately, approximately
Kain - Kain - cloth
Lada - Lada - hot pepper
Mari - Mari - come on (as an incentive to action), let's
Di mana - di mana (Dimana) - where?
Judi - Judi, chudi - gambling
Luka - Luka - wound
Panas - Panas (as a variation of the name Afanasy) - hot
Oli - Oli - machine oil
Dana - Dana - donation
Alis - Alice - eyebrow
Indonesian personal pronouns
Kamu - kamu (to whom?) - you (when informally addressing a loved one)
Kita - kita - we (including the interlocutor)
Indonesian food and drinks
Rebus - rebus - boil, boiled
Kol - kol - cabbage
Kacang - cabbage (g), (head of cabbage) - nut
Rasa - race - taste
Beras - b(e)ras (breast) - uncooked grain of rice
Air - Air - water
Kelapa - paw (bug) - coconut
Es kelapa - es k(e)lapa (from a bug) - a dessert made from coconut water, coconut pulp with added sweeteners. A couple of times I encountered the fact that unprepared friends refused the proposed refreshing drink “from a bug,” considering the name suspicious.
Tawar - tavar (product) - fresh
Teh - te(x), te(x) (te, te) - tea
Teh tawar - those(x) tavar (technical product) - fresh, unsweetened tea
Kopi - copy - coffee
Teri - t(e)ri (three) - a special type of small fish, which is usually dried and then stewed in tomato sauce or fried
Minyak - minya (k) (me) - liquid oil
Telur - t(e) lur (tellurium) - egg
Indonesian animals
Kuda - where - horse
Kuda kamu - where kamu (where? to whom?) - your horse
Kura-kura - kura-kura - turtle
Monyet - coin - monkey
Sapi - sapi (sopi!) - cow
Flora, nature and weather
Seruni - s(e)runi - chrysanthemum
Angin - sore throat - wind
Sawah - sawa (x) (owl) - rice field
Duri - dope - fish bone, thorn, thorn
Daun - down - plant leaf
Udara - impact - air, atmosphere
Indonesian body parts
Muka - flour - face, front part, upcoming
Dada - dada (yes-yes) - breasts, regular breasts, not a bust
Nenek - nene(k) (no-no) - grandmother
Dada nenek - dada nene(k) (yes-yes, no-no) - grandmother's breasts
Pipi - pipi - cheek
Kaki - kaki - leg
Laki-laki - laki-laki - man
Kaki laki-laki - kaki, laki, laki - a man’s legs
Kuku - kuku - nail
Kuku kaki - kuku kaki - toenail
Lidah - lida(x) (Lida) - language
Hati - hati (hoti) - liver
Perut - p(e)rut (rod) - stomach, belly
Alis - Alice - eyebrow
Clothes and accessories
Topi - drown! - cap, hat
Jas - jas (jazz) - jacket, coat
Rok - rock - skirt
Peci - peci - Indonesian folk hat, brimless, black
Tas - tas (pelvis) - bag
Merah - m(e)ra(x) (measure) - red
Biru - biru (take) - blue
Kuda biru - where do I take it (where do I take it?) - blue horse
Murah - mura(x) (mura) - cheap
Mahal - waved - dear
Duit - blowing (blowing) - money
Gadai - guess - pawn, pledge
People and professions
Bedah - trouble(s) (trouble) - surgery
Dokter bedah - doctor trouble(x) (Dr. Beda) - surgeon
Ayah - aya(x) (and me?) - father
On the road
Awas - avas (and you?) - be careful!
Hati-hati - hati-hati (hoti-hoti) - be careful!
Terus - t(e)rus (coward) - directly, immediately, further
Belok - b(e)lok (block, protein) - turn
Dinding - dinding(g) (ding-ding) - wall
Gelas - g(e)las (voice, eye) - glass, mug
Baki - tanks - tray
Buku - buku - book
Kapal - dripped (dug) - ship
Abstract nouns
Seksi - sexy - department, section, platoon in the army
Berita - b(e)rita (brita) - news
Kota - kota - city
Kata - kata (cat) - word
Barang - ram (g) (ram) - product, item, object
Kisah - kitty (x) (kitty) - story, history
Besi - b(e)si (besi!) - iron
Kasih - kasi(x) (kosi) - love, love of the love-care type
Kuasa - kuasa (kvass) - strength, power, authority
Sosok - nipple - loop, shape, numerical classifier for body parts
Rabu - slave - Wednesday (day of the week)
Bedah - trouble(s) (trouble) - surgery
Dokter bedah - doctor trouble(x) (Dr. Beda) - surgeon
Cat - chat - paint, paint
Nota - note - score, record
Adu - hell - competition, compete
Adjectives and adverbs
Sama - herself - the same, equal, together with...
Ya, sama - I myself - yes, the same
Pas - pass (pass, groove) - suitable, appropriate (for inanimate nouns)
Cocok - chocho(k) (what-what?) - suitable, appropriate (for animate nouns)
Beda - trouble - other
Rusak - rusak - broken
Basah - bass(x) (bosa) - wet
Sepi - s(e)pi (sleep!) - quiet, calm
Nakal - intensity - naughty, unbridled
Berat - b(e)rat (brother) - heavy
Buka - - open
Dedah - grandfather (x) (grandfather) - uncovered, naked
Lucu - luku - funny
Penuh - p(e)well(x) (kick) - full
Lama - lama - old (used for inanimate objects)
Awal - aval (oval) - early, early
Pelan - p(e)lan (plan) - slowly, slow
Ragu - stew - suspicious
Berani - b(e)rani (abuse) - brave
Keras - k(e)ras (KRAZ) - hard, hard
Keren - k(e)ren (roll) - impressive, handsome (about a man), well dressed, good looking, cool. Used in relation to men
Lupa - magnifying glass - forget
Nyanyi - nanny - sing
Bilang - bilan(g) (belan, Bilan) - say
Diri - diri (deri!) - stand
Pel - sang - sweep
Beri - b(e)ri (take) - give
Kasi - kasi (kosi) - to give (closer in meaning to “to give”)
Pel - sang - sweep
Cat - chat - paint, paint
Belok - b(e)lok (block, protein) - turn, rotate
Rukah - hand(x) (hand) - roll over, capsize
Ada - ada - auxiliary verb is (like English to be)
Ya - I - yes
Waduh - wadu(x) (in hell) - oh!
Sudah - vessels (x) (ships) - already
Place names in Indonesia
Bratan - bro - lake in Bali
Buyan - buyan - lake in Bali
Maros - maros (frost) is a city north of Makassar, famous for its ancient caves.
Karassik - karassik (karasik) district and large settlement in Tana Toraja (Sulawesi island)
Palu - Palu (semi) is a city in the central part of the island of Sulawesi.
Tarakan - cockroach is a city in the province of North Kalimantan, famous for its oil and gas fields.
Sarapan - sarapan - breakfast
Pahlawan - pahlawan - hero
All materials are tested on live Indonesians. No native speakers were harmed in the preparation of this lesson.
LESSON 5: Life situation: buying juice
The lesson is dedicated to shopping. In this tutorial we will buy fruit juices.
In Indonesia, it is customary for the buyer and seller to greet each other. When entering a store or approaching a counter, say hello immediately, without waiting for a greeting. This will set both the seller and, most importantly, you in a positive mood.
Useful words:
Buah – fruit
Mangga - mango
Jeruk – orange
Alpukat – avocado
Semangka – watermelon
Buah naga – dragonfruit
Apel – apple
Melon – melon
Tomat - tomato
Sirsak - sirsak
Terong belanda – “Dutch eggplant”
Nanas - pineapple
Pisang – banana
Stroberi – strawberry
Nangka – jackfruit
Salak - Baltic herring
Durian - durian
Wortel – carrots
Anggur – grapes
Jambu – guwava
Pepaya - papaya
Jus - juice
Gula – sugar
Es – ice
Susu – milk (Indonesians often use condensed milk when making juice)
Gelas – glass
Pipet – drinking straw
Habis - ended
Kosong - empty (sometimes, if there is no product or something else, instead of empty (sometimes, if there is no product or something else, instead of habis, Indonesians can say kosong - empty)
Minum – to drink
Bungkus – package
Di – passive prefix
Dibungkus – take away, take away
Pakai – use
Sedikit - a little
Tersedia – in stock
Manis – sweet
Harga – price
Berapa – how much
Berapa harga? - what is the price?
Tidak – not (used for adjectives and verbs except verbs in the imperative mood)
tidak manis – unsweetened, tidak suka – I don’t like it. Sometimes colloquially shortened to gak, but not very often.
Bukan – not (used for nouns) – bukan melon – not a melon. Sometimes shortened to kan in colloquial speech, but not very often.
Jangan – not (used for verbs in the imperative mood) – jangan pakai – do not use
Useful questions and suggestions:
Please note that word order is important in Indonesian. For example, anjing makan is "a dog eats", and makan anjing is "a dog eats".
Jus yang mana ada tersedia? – (juice, which, what, is, available) What juices do you have?
Apakah ada jus sirsak? – (does, have, juice, sirsak) Do you have sirsak juice?
Tolong, jangan pakai gula. – (please, do not, use, sugar) Please do not add sugar.
Tolong, jangan pakai es dan gula. – (please, do not, use, ice, and, sugar) Please, no ice and sugar.
Berapa harga satu gelas jus semangka? – (how much, price, one, glass, juice, watermelon) How much does a glass of watermelon juice cost? The phrases satu gelas can be omitted by simply saying Berapa harga jus semangka?
Saya minum di sini. – (I, drink, in, here) I’ll drink here. You can simply say Saya minum sini.
Saya mau dibungkus. – (I, want, takeaway) I’ll take it away.
Campur stroberi dan pisang – (mixture, strawberries, and banana) Mix strawberries and banana. In this case, you can use dan or sama (Campur stroberi sama pisang).
Boleh saya minta...? – (may I, ask) Can I ask...? classic polite address if you want to ask for something.
Example dialogue:
Nikita: Selamat pagi, ibu! (Good morning, lady!)
Ibu Sinarwati: Selamat pagi, bapak! (Good morning, sir!)
Nikita: Apakah ada jus mangga? (There is mango juice)
Ibu Sinarwati: Permisi, bapak, jus mangga habis. Tidak ada. (Sorry sir, mango juice is out. Nope.)
Nikita: Jus yang mana ada tersedia? (Which one is it?)
Ibu Sinarwati: Jus jeruk, alpukat, stroberi, pisang, nangka, apel dan tomat. (Orange, avocado, strawberry, banana, jackfruit, apple and tomato)
Nikita: Apakah ini durian, ibu? (Madam, is this durian?)
Ibu Sinarwati: Ini bukan durian. Ini buah nangka. (It's not durian. It's jackfruit)
Nikita: Boleh saya minta satu jus alpukat dan satu jus campur pisang sama stroberi? (Can I ask for one avocado and one banana-strawberry)
Ibu Sinarwati: Boleh. Apakah bapak mau minum di sini atau dibungkus? (You can. Will you drink here or take it to go?)
Nikita: Saya mau minum disini. Tolong, jangan pakai es dan susu. (I'll drink here. Please don't add ice and milk)
Ibu Sinarwati: Bapak tidak suka jus manis? (Mr. doesn't like sweet juice?)
Nikita: Saya suka jus manis. Tapi tidak suka terlalu manis. (I like sweet. But I don't like too sweet)
Ibu Sinarwati: Pakai es? (With ice?)
Nikita: Ya, bisa pakai sedikit es. (Yes, you can add some ice).
Ibu Sinarwati: Baiklah (Good).
Nikita: Permisi, ibu. Apakah ada pipet? (Sorry, madam. Do you have a straw?)
Ibu Sinarwati: Waduh, permisi, saya lupa. Ini pipet. (Oh, sorry, I forgot. Here's a straw)
Nikita: Ibu, berapa harga jus alpukat dan jus pisang sama stroberi? (Madam, how much is avocado and banana-strawberry juice?)
Ibu Sinarwati: Jus alpukat lima belas ribu dan jus pisang sama stroberi empat belas ribu. (Avocado – 15 thousand and banana-strawberry – 14 thousand)
Nikita: Berapa totalnya? (How many in total?)
Ibu Sinarwati: Totalnya dua puluh sembilan ribu. (Total 29 thousand)
Nikita: Ini tiga puluh ribu. Apakah ada kembali? (Here's 30 thousand. Do you have change?)
Ibu Sinarwati: Ada. Ini seribu, bapak. Terima kasih! (Yes. Here's a thousand, sir. Thank you!)
Nikita: Sama-sama! (And you too!)
Sometimes when addressing an interlocutor, Indonesians talk about him in the third person.
And sometimes when talking about themselves, they also use the third person. Don’t catch yourself in the strangeness of the “Chukchi wants...” situation. This is normal in Indonesian.
LESSON 6:Road signs and signboards
Often, while driving on the streets in Indonesia, we see various signs. For a brief moment, the meaning is intriguing. You think, "I should check later how it's translated." But then, a second passes, someone distracts you, a conversation starts, and the word or sign is forgotten. Meanwhile, information about a dentist or a printing service just a hundred meters from your home could come in handy.
Today's lesson is about inscriptions, signs, and road signs in the Indonesian language that you might encounter in an average Indonesian town. Naturally, I can't list all the road signs existing in Indonesia at the moment. In this lesson, you'll only see the most popular ones—those I reconstructed from memory or saw today along the road.
Food establishments
Warung makan - snack bar
Masakan Padang – Padang cuisine snack bar (from the West Sumatra province) – rice with Padang-specific side dishes
Warung Nasi Jawa – Javanese rice snack bar - rice with toppings, but with Javanese specificity
Nasi Campur – "mixed rice" snack bar - also rice with toppings, but without claiming Sumatran or Javanese flair
Bakso – meatball snack bar (stationary or mobile) – soup with (most often) chicken or beef meatballs.
Terang Bulan – this sign is often seen on a mobile kitchen where round sweet pancakes called "terang bulan" are fried with chocolate, nut, or other sweet fillings.
Martabak – this sign is often seen on a mobile kitchen where "martabak" pies, resembling omelets with savory fillings, are fried.
Gorengan – this sign is often seen on a mobile kitchen where various fried snacks ("gorengan") like fried bananas, cassava, tofu, tempeh, corn kernels, etc., are made in batter.
Roti goreng - "fried bread" - this sign is often seen on a mobile kitchen where slices of white bread are cut, spread with jams and other sweet fillings, and then toasted.
Warung kopi – coffee shop. Often abbreviated to Warkop on signs.
Aneka jus – assorted juices
Notaris - notary
Kantor pos – mail
Kantor imigrasi – immigration service
SD – sekolah dasar – elementary school – for children aged 5-11(12) years
SMP – sekolah menengah pertama – junior high school (lower grades) - for children aged 11-14(15) years
SMA – sekolah menengah atas – senior high school (upper grades) - for children aged 14-17(18) years
Lembaga Pemasyarakatan Kerobokan - Kerobokan prison. Often, Lembaga Pemasyarakatan is abbreviated to LP. LP is the official abbreviation. Unofficially, the prison is referred to as "penjara."
Dokter gigi – dentist
Dokter mata - ophthalmologist
Dokter kulit dan kelamin - dermatovenerologist
Dokter penyakit dalam - therapist
Dokter syaraf - neurologist
Dokter hewan – veterinarian
Rumah sakit - hospital
Apotik - pharmacy
Toko obat – medicine store (there are fewer types of medicines than in a pharmacy and there is no pharmacist)
Puskesmas - clinic
Bidan - obstetrician
Jual pulsa – sale of balance (for telephone, electric meter)
Isi pulsa – replenishment of balance (for telephone, electric meter)
Isi pulse di sini! – top up your balance here!
Jual bensin – sale of gasoline
Jual gas – sale of domestic gas
Jual beli mobil – sale and purchase of cars
Jual kambing – sale of goats
Jual ayam – sale of chickens
Jual pasir – sale of sand
Jual batu alam – sale of natural stone
Jual variasi – sale of spare parts
Jual alat-alat – sale of spare parts
Jual oli – sale of machine oil
Jual kembang api – sale of fireworks
The shops
Toko - store
Toko bangunan – hardware store
Depot air minum / isi ulang air – replenishment of drinking water
Cuci motor – washing bikes, motorcycles
Cuci helm – helmet washing
Cuci mobil – car wash
Cuci karpet – carpet washing
Bengkel - workshop
Isi angin – tire inflation, tire inflation
Pres ban – tire repair (tire patch)
Ganti oli – oil change
Rental motor – rental of bikes and motorcycles
Rental mobil – car rental
Pompa benzin - gas station
Potong rambut – hair cutting, hair salon
Pangkas rambut – hair cutting, hair salon
Menerima pesanan – we accept orders
Pijat - massage
Penjahit - tailor
Pangkalan ojek – base of motorcycle taxi drivers
Disewakan – for rent
Kursus mengemudi – driving courses
Percetakan – listing, printing
Warung internet – internet cafe. Often shortened to Warnet on signs
Road signs
Jalan terus - keep moving without stopping
Dilarang berhenti – it is forbidden to stop
Dilarang parkir – parking is prohibited
Dilarang merokok – no smoking
Hati-hati! - carefully!
6.00 – 12.00 dilarang kecuali sepeda motor – 6.00 – 12.00 entry is prohibited for everyone except bikes and motorcycles
Terima kos – rooms for rent (dormitory type)
Dikontrakkan – for rent
Air terjun - waterfall
Object wisata – tourist object
Kebun raya – botanical garden
Other signs and signage
Selamat datang! - Welcome!
Selamat jalan! - Bon Voyage!
Awas! Ada anjing! - Carefully! Dog!
Awas! Anjing galak! - Carefully! Angry dog!
Dilarang membuang sampah! – It is forbidden to throw away garbage!
Awas!!! Berbahaya tegangan tinggi!!! - Carefully!!! High voltage!
Dilarang membangun bangunan tanpa IMB! – It is prohibited to construct buildings without an IMB (building permit)
All phrases and dialogue are tested on live Indonesians. No native speakers were harmed in the preparation of this lesson ;)
LESSON 7: Orientation. I'm lost! How to find a guesthouse?
You are on one of the islands in Indonesia, still not particularly familiar to you. The battery is dead – the navigator on your phone won't help anymore. The power bank is left at home. It's already late in the evening, you're tired from the journey, and you really want to find a hotel or guesthouse. However, all the locals you encounter on the road freeze when they hear English. A paper map is at hand, but it's not particularly helpful. Nothing can be done. You'll have to use your entire arsenal of Indonesian, whatever it may be.
There are many words in this lesson. Depending on your needs and requirements, take as many words as you need. Even if you grasp 10% of the words from the lesson – that's already great.
The advantage of large lessons is that they are quite comprehensive. Mastering all the words from the lesson, in 90% of cases, you'll be able to explain yourself correctly and find your way.
The most crucial question is "di mana" (dee mah-nah) – where? Knowing only this question and the name of the place you need, you can somehow determine the direction to move. After all, even if you can't understand directions given, you can at least orient yourself with gestures.
"Di mana hotel (wisma, penginapan, pondok)?" – Where is the hotel (guesthouse, accommodation, cottage)? "Wisma" means a guesthouse. "Penginapan" (derived from the Indonesian word "menginap" - to stay overnight) and "pondok" are usually guesthouses of a slightly lower class than "wisma" and more budget-friendly. In the dialogue, I will translate the word "wisma" as a guesthouse.
Useful words related to direction and road:
- Ini – this, here
- Itu – that, there
- Di sini – here
- Di sana – there
- Di situ – in textbooks, it is mentioned that "di situ" refers to something far from the speaker but close to the listener. In spoken Indonesian, people often ignore this rule and use it as an intermediate term between "di sini" and "di sana." "Di situ" implies something that is not within arm's reach but can be reached by walking and is close enough to touch.
- Di daerah – in the vicinity, nearby, in the area. "Di daerah sini" means around here, in this area. "Di daerah sana" means around there, in that area.
- Kiri – left, on the left, to the left. By the way, "kiri!" is often shouted by bus passengers to the driver, asking him to make a stop, meaning to pull over to the left side of the road.
Kanan – right, on the right, to the right
Di sebelah kiri – on the left side (sebelah – half, about, in the direction of)
Di sebelah kanan – on the right side
Belok – turn, to turn
Belok kiri - turn left
Belok kanan – turn right
Depan – in front, upcoming, next
Di depan – in front, before
Di antara – between
Di tengah – in the middle (more precisely, in the middle between)
Terus – further, immediately, to continue, then (informal)
Lurus – straight, without deviation, on a straight path
Kemudian – later, after
Lalu – then, afterwards, the last, the previous. In the context of "later," "lalu" and "kemudian" are interchangeable.
Sampai - until
Dekat - close
Jauh – far
Dari – from. Dekat dari sini – close from here. Jauh dari sini – far from here.
Lewat – pass, go through, through
Jalan – to go, to travel, street, road
Jalan kaki – (walking, foot) to walk
Jalan pakai motor – (walking, using, bike) to ride a bike
Jalan pakai mobil – (walking, using, car) to drive a car
Alamat - address
Alamatnya – this address (the use of -nya with nouns serves as an article like "the" in English)
Ambil – to take, to follow
Ketemu - to meet
Lampu - lamp
Merah - red
Lampu merah - traffic light
Sebelum – before (belum – not yet).
Sesudah – after (sudah – already). Alternatively, "setelah" is also used, but less commonly.
Terletak – located (letak – place, location, disposition). In spoken language, it is often replaced by the auxiliary verb "ada" (to be). Although grammatically more accurate to use "terletak."
Other words found in the lesson:
- Maaf – excuse me, sorry.
- Permisi – excuse me, pardon (a softer version).
- Tanya, bertanya – to ask. Grammatically, it's more correct to use it with the prefix "ber-" (bertanya), but in spoken language, it's often used simply as "tanya."
- Numpang tanya – may I ask?
- Tahu – to know. In this case, "tahu" is pronounced without the "h" to avoid confusion with "tahu" (tofu).
- Bisa – can, to be able to physically (similar to "can" in English).
- Boleh – can, to have permission (similar to "may" in English).
- Boleh saya tahu? – (may, I, know) Can I know?
- Kota – city.
- Nama – name, title; namanya (this name, -nya is used as an article like "the" in English).
- Tersesat – lost. Saya tersesat – I am lost.
- Cari - to search.
- Apakah – whether, is there. Introductory word to form a question. In spoken language, it can be omitted with a questioning intonation.
- Apa – what (how, which, introductory word for a question).
- Bagaimana menuju ke sana – (how, go towards, to, there) How to get there? Often, "bagaimana" is shortened to "gimana." You can also say Bagaimana bisa ke sana? (how, can, to, there) – How can I get there?
- Sekali – very (used after an adjective). Sangat – very (used before an adjective). Jauh sekali – very far. Sangat jauh – very far.
- Ada – introductory verb "to be." Often omitted in spoken language.
- Yang – which. Often omitted in spoken language.
- Bagus – good.
Selain – in addition to...
Lagi – again (in the sense of "one more time," "more," "again")
Juga – also, too
Kira-kira – approximately. Also used for approximate indications like kurang-lebih (less-more, meaning more or less), sekitar.
Atau – or
Kalau – if, when. Often in spoken language, it sounds like "kalo."
Lihat, melihat – to see. "Melihat" is a transitive verb that implies an object after it. However, in spoken language, the prefix "me," "meng," "men," "mem" is often omitted, and the verb is used without it.
Papan – board, sign. Papan nama – signboard
Menyeberang jalan – to cross the street. Another expression you can use is melewati jalan.
Tunjukan – to point (tunjuk – pointing finger)
Peta – map
Susah – difficult. Also used "sulit" or "sukar."
Gampang – easy. Also used "mudah."
Pakai – to use (for clothing items, it's also used as "to wear")
Warung makan – (small shop, eat) snack bar
Murah – cheap
Mahal – expensive
Tapi – but
Begitu – like that, so, in that way. Sometimes in spoken language, it sounds like "gitu."
Salah – wrong
Betul – correct. Also used "benar," but slightly less often.
Warna – color
Merah - red
Dialogue example
Fedya: Maaf, pak, numpang tanya? Ini kota namanya apa? (Excuse me, sir, may I ask? What is the name of this city?)
Pak Kumis: Ini kota Maros. (This is the city of Maros)
Fedya: Saya tersesat. Saya cari wisma “Viktoria” di kota Maros. Apakah bapak tahu itu di mana? (I'm lost. I'm looking for the Victoria guesthouse in Maros. Do you know where it is?)
Pak Kumis: Boleh saya tahu alamatnya? Itu di jalan apa? (Can I know the address? What street is it on?)
Fedya: Di jalan Jendral Sudirman. Apa nama jalan ini? (On General Sudirman Street. What is the name of this street?)
Pak Kumis: Ini namanya Diponegoro. (This is Diponegoro)
Fedya: Bagaimana menuju ke sana? Apakah jalan Jendral Sudirman jauh atau dekat dari sini? (How to get there? Is General Sudirman Street far or close from here?)
Pak Kumis: Dekat sekali! Ambil jalan ini lurus, sampai ketemu lampu merah, kemudian belok kiri. Di sana ada Jalan Jendral Sudirman. (Very close! Take this street straight until you meet a traffic light, then turn left. There is General Sudirman Street)
Fedya: Apakah bapak tahu wisma yang bagus di kota ini selain wisma “Viktoria”? (Do you know another good guesthouse in this city besides the Victoria guesthouse?)
Pak Kumis: Ya, tahu. Wisma “Maria”. Bagus sekali! (Yes, I know. Guesthouse “Maria”. Very good!)
Fedya: Itu di mana? (Where is it?)
Pak Kumis: Di Jalan Jendral Sudirman juga. Di jalan Sudirman jalan terus kira-kira 500 meter. Ada service center Honda dan mall “Hardis” di sana. Wisma “Maria” di tengah service center dan mall. (Also on Sudirman Street. On Sudirman Street you go straight for about 500 meters. There is a Honda service center and a Hardis supermarket. Guesthouse "Maria" is between the service center and the mall)
Fedya: Apakah itu di sebelah kiri atau di sebelah kanan? (Is it on the left or right side?)
Pak Kumis: Di sebelah kanan. (On the right side)
Fedya: Apa ada di depan wisma “Maria”? (And what’s opposite the guesthouse “Maria”?)
Pak Kumis: Di depan wisma “Maria” ada bank Danamon. Kalau melihat di sebelah kiri papan nama "bank Danamon" menyeberang jalan. Di sana ada wisma “Maria”. (In front of the guesthouse “Maria” is the Danamon Bank. When you see the “Danamon Bank” sign on the left side, cross the street. There will be a guesthouse “Maria”)
Fedya: Apakah wisma “Maria” terletak sebelum servis center Honda atau sesudah? (Guesthouse “Maria” before or after the Honda service center?)
Pak Kumis: Sesudah. Ada servis center Honda dan sesudah itu wisma “Maria” (After. Honda service center and after it guesthouse “Maria”)
Fedya: Bapak bisa tunjukan di peta ini? (Can you show on this map?)
Pak Kumis: Permisi, saya susah pakai peta. (Sorry, but it's difficult for me to use the map)
Fedya: Tidak apa-apa. Apakah ada warung makan bagus dan murah di daerah sana? (No big deal. Is there a good, inexpensive eatery in the area?)
Pak Kumis: Ada warung makan baugus tapi mahal di sana. Namanya itu “Sederhana”. Tapi ada satu juga yang bagus tapi tidak begitu mahal. Namanya "Saruran". (There is a good snack bar there, but a little expensive. It’s called “Sederkhana”. But there is one also good, but not so expensive. It’s called “Saruran”)
Fedya: Itu bagus? (She is good?)
Pak Kumis: Ya, sangat bagus! (Yes, very good!)
Fedya: Itu di mana? Dekat dari wisma? (Where is this? Is it close to the guesthouse?)
Pak Kumis: Dekat sekali! (Very close!)
Fedya: Bisa jalan kaki ke sana? Atau jauh jalan kaki ke sana? (Is it possible to walk there? Or is it too far to walk?)
Pak Kumis: Oh, bisa jalan kaki! (You can walk there!)
Fedya: Warung itu namanya “Saruran” di mana? (Where is this Saruran snack bar?)
Pak Kumis: Kalau keluar dari wisma “Maria” belok kiri. Jalan terus sekitar 300 meter sampai ketemu papan nama besar warna merah “Saruran”. Di sana ada warung makan “Saruran”. (If you are leaving Maria Guesthouse, turn left. Walk straight for about 300 meters until you come to a big red sign for Saruran. There is a Saruran snack bar there)
Fedya: Kalau saya ke sana apakah saya lewat mall “Hardis”? (If I go there, do I pass by Hardy's Mall?)
Pak Kumis: Tidak. Lewat service Honda. (No. Go to Honda service center)
Fedya: Ke sana sekitar 3 menit jalan kaki? (About 3 minutes walk there?)
Pak Kumis: Betul! (Right!)
Fedya: Terima kasih banyak, bapak! (Thank you very much, sir!)
Pak Kumis: Sama-sama! (And you too!)
LESSON 8: Buying fruits and vegetables at the market
It's no secret that one of the wonders of Indonesia and Bali in particular is that you can buy a variety of fruits and vegetables here all year round. If you are determined to stop buying them in supermarkets and want to try new sensations at the market, this lesson is for you. And also for those who want to test their vocabulary on this topic and make sure that they are armed to the teeth with words.
Vegetables and greens
asparagus - asparagus
bawang Bombay - onion ("Bombay onion")
bawang merah - shallots ("red onions") red small onions
bawang putih - garlic
bayam - spinach
brokoli - broccoli
buncis - bunchis, green pods
bunga kol, kembang kol - cauliflower ("cabbage flower")
daun bawang - green onion in shoots ("onion leaf")
jagung - corn
kacang panjang - kacang panjang, very long pod beans ("long nut")
kankung Lombok - kankung Lombok - an aquatic plant with long stems and small leaves
kentang - potatoes
ketela - ketela - sweet potato
kol - cabbage
labu - pumpkin
lobak - radish
pare - pare - a vegetable similar to a cucumber with pimples, bitter
sawi putih - Beijing salad
sayur - vegetable
sayur-sayuran - vegetables - collective name
selada - lettuce
seledri - celery
singkong - cassava
terong - eggplant
timun - cucumber, in textbooks and dictionaries they write ketimun, but in practice timun is used
toge - toge - soybean sprouts
tomat - tomato
ubi - ubi - sweet potato
wortel - carrot
Spices and seasonings
bumbu - spice, seasoning
bumbu basah - fresh seasoning ("wet seasoning")
bumbu segar - fresh seasoning ("seasoning is fresh")
bumbu kering - dried seasoning ("dry seasoning")
bumbu masak - cooking seasoning
cabe - chabe, hot pepper
cengkeh - clove
daun jeruk - lemon leaf
halus - finely ground, noble, soft, sensitive, delicate
kasar - coarse, coarse
jahe - ginger
kayu manis - cinnamon (“sweet tree”)
ketumbar - coriander
kunyit - turmeric
lada - pepper
lada hitam - black pepper
lada merah - red pepper
merica - pepper
sere - lemongrass
bubuk - powder, ground
jahe bubuk - ground ginger
kunyit bubuk - ground turmeric
batang jahe - fresh ginger in roots
batang kunyit - fresh turmeric in roots
Some nouns of the Indonesian language are used in a special grammatical function - as a counting word or as a classifier is also called.
In Indonesian, quantities are considered fruits, stems, seeds, tails and much more.
Here are the most likely classifiers you'll encounter.
- kilo - kilogram; classifier for objects measured in kilograms
- buah - fruit; classifier for small whole items (including electronics, appliances, equipment, houses)
- plastik - plastic bag; for items measured in packets
- ikat - bundle; classifier for items in a bundle
- batang - stem/trunk; classifier for elongated objects (including cigarettes)
- bungkus - package; classifier for items in a package
- potong - piece, cut; classifier for large cut pieces
- ekor - tail; classifier for animals and birds
Those that you are less likely to encounter in the market:
- biji - seed; classifier for round small items
- butir - grain; classifier for small round items (e.g., eggs)
- helai - strand; classifier for thin items like hair
- lembar - sheet (of paper); classifier for thin items like a sheet of paper
- pucuk - shoot; classifier for letters (they used to be rolled into a tube)
- tangkai - stem, stalk, trunk; classifier for long thin items like flowers
- orang, seorang - person; classifier for people
With the enumeration of objects as "fruits," I once encountered a funny incident. Once, I was on a ferry and saw a notice about the cost of transporting items on it. I came across a line in the price list that read "1 buah kulkas" and the corresponding cost for transportation. "Wow," I thought, "I've tried so many fruits, but I've never tried kulkas." Intuitively, I felt like I had seen this word somewhere before, but I couldn't recall where. The next line listed the cost for "1 buah motor," and I realized that the previous object was definitely not a fruit, and perhaps ordering juice from it wouldn't be a good idea.
Examples of calculating objects using classifiers.
sebuah - one fruit
sebuah mangga - one mango ("one mango fruit")
seikat - one bunch
seikat daun - one bunch of leaves
seekor - one animal ("one tail")
seekor ayam - one chicken ("one animal chicken")
How many
The most important word for the market and shopping is berapa - how much? Namely “Berapa harga?” (how much, price) “How much does it cost?”
To clarify:
Berapa harga ini? – How much is this?
Berapa harga itu? – How much is that item?
Berapa harganya? – How much does it cost?
The suffix "nya" is added similar to the English "the" and can be replaced with the demonstrative pronouns "this," "that," or "it."
Harga – price
Harganya – the price of this, the price for this, this price
Harga ini – the price of this, the price for this, this price
Rasa – taste
Rasanya - the taste of this, this taste
Rasa ini - the taste of this, this taste
Most products in the market are sold by kilograms. However, there are those that are sometimes sold individually (mango, papaya, watermelon, jackfruit, Peking cabbage), in bunches (greens - kachang panjang, kangkung, bunches, spinach), in plastic bags (chabe), or as stems (lemongrass).
Therefore, when purchasing, if in doubt, you can clarify:
Berapa harga ini per kilo?
Berapa harga satu kilo ini?
Apakah ini harga per kilo atau per buah?
Apakah harga ini per kilo atau per ikat?
Useful words
berat - heavy
beratnya - weight, this weight
setengah - half a kilo
sekilo setengah - one and a half kilograms (a kilogram and a half)
terlalu - too much
sedikit - a little, a little bit (used for indivisible objects - like sugar, flour, salt and adjectives)
beberapa - several, a little bit (used for divisible items)
banyak - many (for both divisible and indivisible)
terlalu banyak - too much
cukup - enough
paling - most (superlative)
lebih - more
kurang - less
kurang-lebih - more or less, approximately (you can also use kira-kira and sekitar)
lagi - yet
juga - too
untuk - for
sesuatu - something, anything
murah - cheap, cheap
mahal - dear, expensive
terlalu mahal - too expensive
harga mahal - (price, expensive) high price
harga murah - (price, cheap) low price
pas - suitable, appropriate
harga pas - right price
bagaimana (gimana – colloquial) - like
kalau (kalo – colloquial) - if
Bagaimana kalau...? (gimana kalo – colloquial) - What if...?
Useful verbs.
The verb in brackets with the prefix mem-, men-, meng-, me is a more grammatically correct active (transitive) version of the verb, but less often used in colloquial speech. Remember it - good. If you don’t remember, don’t fool yourself at first.
beli (membeli) - buy
jual (menjual) - to sell
bantu (membantu) - to help
mau - want
harus - to be obliged to do
perlu (memerlukan) - to need, to feel the need
butuh (membutuhkan) - to need, to feel the need, but is used a little less often than perlu
mencicipi - to taste
pilih (memilih) - choose
dapat (mendapat) - receive
habis (menghabiskan) - ended
timbang (menimbang) - to weigh
giling (menggiling) - grind
impor (mengimpor) - import
ambil (mengambil) - to take
tambah (menambahkan) - add
tambah lagi - add more
bau - to smell bad, bad odor
wangi - smell good, pleasant smell
harum - smell very pleasant, aroma
kurangi (mengurangi) - reduce (for example, price)
rugi (merugi) - to suffer financial losses
If you add the prefix di to a verb, it will take on a passive form.
Impor - import
Diimpor – imported
Jual – sell
Dijual - for sale
Saya mau beli – I want (going to) buy
Saya perlu beli – I need to buy
Saya harus beli – I must (must) buy
Boleh saya mencicipi ini? -Can I try this? (by the way, I don’t recommend doing this, but maybe someone wants to)
Jangan mencicipi! - Don't try!
Tidak boleh mencicipi! – You are not allowed to try!
Tomat habis – the tomatoes have run out
Tolong, tambah satu kilo bawang lagi. – Please add another kilogram of onions.
Useful adjectives
matang - mature, ripe
lembut - soft
keras - hard
segar - fresh
manis - sweet
pahit - bitter
aneh - strange
tajam - sharp
enak - delicious (universal for everything)
gurih - tasty (for everything, but more often about fish ready-made dishes)
lezat - tasty (for everything, but more often about ready-made meat dishes)
Useful nouns
macam - variety
jenis - species (used for animals)
daun - leaf of a plant
bagian - part
bagian bumbu-bumbu - spice department
bahan - substance, substance, material, object,
bahan-bahan - ingredients
barang - product
rasa - taste
Rice names
If you are unfamiliar with this issue and ask the store to show you the department where you can buy nasi (rice), the employee will take you to the “cooking” department, where you can buy ready-made dishes. Because, depending on its readiness, rice has different names.
Padi – rice growing in the field, plant
Ketan, beras ketan – a special type of rice grain - glutinous rice
Beras – rice grain harvested and ready for sale
Nasi – cooked rice
LESSON 9: Buying clothes. Vocabulary and little secrets
This lesson is for real lovers of Indonesian extreme sports. For those who reject the great opportunity to buy clothes in a store with fixed prices and English-speaking sellers. For those who are ready to plunge into shopping at an ordinary clothing market.
Here are a dozen secrets that can make the process of finding the best price less nerve-wracking. As usual, I don’t reinvent the wheel and take my hat off to the people who in Arab markets easily reduce the prices of local carpets from $5,000 to $50.
When you enter a small shop, the seller usually greets you and begins to inquire about you: which country you're from, the hotel you're staying at, how many days ago you arrived in Bali or Indonesia, whether you're married, where you work, and if you have children.
Setting aside those local residents who inquire selflessly and from the heart—there are people like that—market vendors typically ask these questions to gauge your financial capability, assess your familiarity with the local currency, determine if you are willing to negotiate, and assess how easily you might yield to pressure.
A dozen tips for those who want to join the trading process and make it less traumatic for the psyche:
1. Don’t say that you arrived only today, yesterday or the day before yesterday. Even if that's the case. The seller will decide that you have not yet figured out the local currency, are going crazy with zeros and will set the price higher.
2. The lowest paid jobs in Indonesia are: port worker (buruh pelabuhan), factory worker (buruh pabrik), farmer (petani), motorcycle driver (tukang ojek), parking attendant (tukang parkir), cleaner (tukang bersih-bersih), penjual sayur (vegetable seller), domestic servant (pembantu). Doctors, teachers and students are not included in the category of poor people. If you want to reduce the original price even further, say that you are a farmer or a parking attendant.
Here is the translation:
3. Don't think that by attempting to lower the price, you will offend the seller in any way. In the trading process in the Indonesian market, there is nothing offensive about it unless you start saying something unpleasant directly. It's a traditional communication process. Moreover, the more inventive you are in negotiating, the more respect the seller will have for you.
4. During the negotiation, don't fall for attempts to make you nervous or rush you ("If you buy right now, I'll sell you these sandals for only 200,000 rupiahs!"). If someone tries to make you hurry and panic, they are taking control of the situation. Stay calm and composed.
5. If you have good friends living in Bali, take the time to ask them before going to the market how much the item you plan to buy typically costs.
6. In Indonesia, the "walk away" technique works well. Upon hearing the price, you "walk away." Often in this case, the seller will suggest that you name your own price. This "walk away" technique also works well when the seller is stubborn about not lowering the price, but you feel that it can still be reduced. An alternative to the "walk away" technique can be the "oh, I'll check a couple more stores and then come back to you" approach.
7. If you are asked to name "your price," you can try dividing the initially quoted price by 5-6 and see the seller's reaction. Very often, this turns out to be the price at which you can buy the item. If you are buying something not in Bali and not in a market specifically geared towards tourists, there's a chance you'll be quoted a price that is 10-20% higher than the actual one.
8. In Indonesia, there are shops with fixed prices. "Harga pas" translates officially as a fixed price. However, when bargaining in the market, Indonesians also mention "harga pas," meaning the real, fair, and appropriate price.
9. If you speak Indonesian reasonably well, there's a chance the seller will understand that you've been in Indonesia for more than just a day, and inflating the price for you tenfold is somehow not right.
10. When buying goods at the market, make sure that the items placed in the bag are indeed what you paid for. Stationary shops are less likely to make mistakes than sellers who trade on the go, but it's still worth staying vigilant.
11. Do not hope that if a product purchased on the market is torn the next day or breaks, you are guaranteed to be replaced with a similar one or your money will be returned.
baju - a general name for items of clothing from the neck to the waist, often translated as shirt
baju hangat - (shirt, warm) sweater
baju olahraga - (shirt, sport) sports T-shirt
beha (BH - bustholder) - bra
blus - blouse
celana - trousers
celana dalam - (pants, inside) briefs
celana pendek - (pants, short) shorts
gaun - dress
jaket - jacket, jacket
jas - jacket
jas hujan - (jacket, rain) raincoat
jeans - jeans
kaos - T-shirt
kaos kaki - socks
kaos tangan - gloves
kemeja - shirt
ketat - tights
legin - leggings (but read as "legin")
mantel - coat
pakaian - clothing (pakai - to use, put on)
pakaian dalam - (clothing, inside) underwear
pakaian renang - (clothes, swim) swimsuit
piyama - pajamas
rock - skirt
rompi - vest
sandal - sandals
sandal jepit - flip flops
sarung - sarong
sarung pantai - (sarong, beach) pareo
sepatu - shoes
sepatu tinggi - (shoes, high) boots
singlet - T-shirt
topi - hat, cap
Parts of clothing
kancing - button
kantong - pocket below the waist
kerah - collar
lengan baju - sleeve
lubang kancing - (hole, button) button loop
risleting - lightning
saku - pocket above the waist
sambungan - seam
tali sepatu - lace
tapak sepatu - sole of a shoe, sandal
jepit - membrane on flip flops
Accessories and decorations
anting-anting - dangling earrings
cincin - ring
dasi - tie
dasi kupu-kupu - bow tie
gelang - bracelet
ikat pinggang - (rope, waist) belt
giwang - stud earrings
kacamata - (glass, eye) glasses
kacamata gelap - sun glasses
kalung - beads, necklace
kipas - fan
sarung tangan - (sarong, hand) gloves
selendang - long scarf
syal - shawl
tas - bag
tas punggung - (bag, back) backpack
bahan - material
kain sintetis - synthetic fabric
kapas, katun - cotton
katun halus - (cotton, fine) flannel
sutera - silk
wol - wool
abu-abu - gray
beraneka warna - multicolor
berwarna - painted, having a certain color
biru - blue
coklat - brown
hijau - green
hitam - black
kuning - yellow
luntur - dull, discolored
marun - burgundy
merah - red
merah jambu - (red, guava) pink
muda - light
pastel - pastel
putih - white
sawo matang - (savo, mature) light brown
tua - dark
ungu - purple, violet, lilac
warna - color, shade
To denote a light color, such as light red, in the Indonesian language, the adjective "muda" (young) is added to it. Merah muda – light red or pink. The adjective "muda" is usually used for animate nouns. For inanimate ones – baru (new).
To denote a dark color, such as dark red, in the Indonesian language, the adjective "tua" (old) is added to it. Merah tua – dark red or burgundy. The adjective "tua" is usually used for animate nouns. For inanimate ones – lama (old).
The same applies (muda, tua) to all other colors, except for white and black.
asli - original
beda (berbeda) - different
khusus - special
kecil - small
besar - big
murah - cheap
mahal - expensive
nyaman - comfortable
unik - unique, exceptional
biasa - standard, normal
sederhana - simple, uncomplicated
cocok - suitable, matching (in style, cut, color)
pas - fitting, appropriate (in size)
bagus - good, excellent; used for objects, not for people; often translated into Russian as "здорово, замечательно, велико-лепно."
baik - good; not used for objects, used for people
indah - beautiful, attractive, precious; used for objects, not for people
cantik - beautiful, cute, pretty; used for objects, for clothing – for women's clothing, for people – for women
modis - stylish, fashionable; used for women's clothing, for people – for women
ganteng - handsome; used for men
keren - impressive, beautiful, stylish; used for objects, for clothing – for men's clothing, for people – for men
Equality (same)
1. To emphasize the equality of objects, add the prefix se- to the adjective.
Semahal – just as expensive
Sekecil – just as small
Sepanjang – just as long
Kalung ini semahal gelang itu – this necklace is as expensive as this bracelet.
2. To emphasize equality, you can use the following construction:
"Sama + adjective-nya + dengan"
"Sama" - 1) same, equal; 2) together, with; 3) and
"Dengan" - 1) together, with; 2) by means of, with the help of
"Sama mahalnya dengan" - as expensive as
"Sama kecilnya dengan" - as small as
"Sama panjangnya dengan" - as long as
"Kalung ini sama mahalnya dengan kalung itu" - This necklace is as expensive as that necklace.
Comparative degree (more)
1. When comparing something, add "lebih" to the adjective if the quality is expressed more.
"Lebih + adjective + daripada" or "Lebih + adjective + dari"
"Lebih mahal" – more expensive
"Lebih murah" – cheaper
To add the object of comparison, use "daripada."
"Celana panjang lebih mahal daripada celana pendek" – Long pants are more expensive than shorts.
2. You can also use the design:
"Lebih + adjective-nya + dengan."
"Warna gaun ini lebih cantiknya dengan warna gaun itu" – The color of this dress is more beautiful than the color of that dress.
3. For specifying a higher degree of quality, you can use the word "jauh" (far, much, significantly) before "lebih."
"Jauh lebih + adjective + daripada" or "Jauh lebih + adjective + dari."
"Sepatu ini jauh lebih mahal daripada sepatu itu" – These shoes are much more expensive than those shoes.
Comparative degree (less)
1. Add kurang to the adjective if the quality is less pronounced.
Kurang + adjective + daripada
Kurang + adjective + dari
Kemeja ini kurang bagus daripada kemeja itu – This shirt is not as good as that one.
2. You can also use the design:
Kurang + adjective-nya + dengan.
Celana ini kurang panjangnya dengan celana itu – these trousers are less long than those.
Superlative (most)
1. To form superlatives, add paling to the adjective.
Paling + adjective
Paling bagus – the best
Paling mahal - the most expensive
Paling besar - the largest
2. Another way to form superlatives is by adding the prefix ter-.
Terbagus – the best
Termahal - the most expensive
Terbesar – the largest
Too much
1. Terlalu
Terlalu + adjective
Terlalu mahal - too expensive
Terlalu murah – too cheap
For price, the adjectives “expensive” and “cheap” are used, rather than “low” and “high” as in Russian.
Harga terlalu mahal - the price is too high
Harga terlalu murah – the price is too low
2. You can also use the following construction to express “too”:
Kekecilan – too small
Kebesaran – too big
Kemahalan - too expensive
Kependekan – too short
Kepanjangan – too long
Sandal ini terlalu kecil untuk saya – these sandals are too small for me.
Sandal ini kekecilan untuk saya – these sandals are too small for me.
beli (membeli) - buy
buat (membuat) - to do, make
buka (membuka) - open, take off (about clothes)
coba (mencoba) - try, try on
ganti (mengganti) - change
habis (menghabiskan) - ended
kurang (mengurangi) - reduce (price)
pakai (memakai) - to use, wear (about clothes)
pikir (berpikir) - think, consider (that)
pilih (memilih) - choose
rugi (merugi) - lose income
tawar, tawar-menawar - bargain
terbuat dari - made from
Apakah ada model sama pakai kancing terbuat dari mutiara? – Is there a similar model with mother-of-pearl buttons?
Although you can say it more briefly and they will understand you too:
Ada model sama pakai kancing mutiara?
Other words
atau - Or
Sebentar - "Wait a minute!" also "later that day"
tapi (tetapi) - but
tentang - about
pintar - smart, knowledgeable
tinggal - to remain, to abide, to be, to live
turis - tourist
kamar pas - fitting room
langganan - client
ukuran - size
kembali - back, again
nanti - later, later
orang - person
pintar Bahasa Indonesia - (smart, language, Indonesian) speak Indonesian, speak Indonesian
pertama - first
With the help of the word orang “person”, compound nouns are formed, meaning
1. nationality (orang Indonesia “Indonesian”)
2. nationality (orang Jawa “Javanese”, orang Sunda “Sundanese”)
3. names of residents of a locality or settlement (orang Jakarta “native, resident of Jakarta”)
LESSON 10: All kinds of questions about the house
What to do if you have found what seems to be a good option for renting a house, but the owner doesn't speak English or speaks it very poorly? How do you inquire about the house? How do you ask all the questions that interest you?
Let's not hesitate as usual and take Indonesian seriously in this lesson.
In this lesson, we will cover all types of questions using the example of the topic related to the house and situations associated with it. Vocabulary on the topic of "house" and a dialogue about Ivan, who will be renting the house, will be discussed in the next lesson. By the way, the name Ivan is quite common in Java.
The order of words in a question, as a rule, is the same as in a regular narrative one. There is no changing the places of words in a sentence in the case of an interrogative sentence, as in English.
Theoretically, you can change the order of words in a sentence, but at first it is better not to do this. Because
Kucing makan – cat eats
Makan kucing – eat a cat
1. General questions (“Is it true that...?” Can I...?”)
A general question is asked with the aim of confirming or refuting the information it contains. It requires an answer that includes "yes" or "no." Therefore, such a question is sometimes called a "yes-no question."
Sometimes the answer may not be strictly "yes" (ya) or "no" (tidak, bukan).
Possible options include:
- maybe (mungkin),
- sometimes (kadang-kadang),
- correct (betul),
- already (sudah),
- not yet (belum),
- allowed (boleh),
- not allowed (tidak boleh), and so on.
Not always does a question contain an interrogative word. If it is omitted, the question is indicated by intonation.
1.1 Is it so...? it...? -kah...?
–kah highlights the word that requires confirmation or denial.
Word order:
A word with –kah always occupies a position at the beginning of a sentence.
- Garasikah ini? – Is this a garage?
- Ya, ini garasi. - Yes, this is a garage.
- Inikah garasi? - Is this a garage?
- Ya, ini garasi. - Yes, this is a garage.
1.2 Is it so...? ...Is...? Apakah...?
Apa (what) + -kah (question particle) = interrogative word apakah
Word order:
Like in a regular declarative sentence, but apakah always comes at the beginning. If apa or apakah is omitted, then the order is like in a regular interrogative sentence.
- Apakah ini kamar mandi? – Is this the bathroom?
- Apakah rumah itu besar? – Is that house big?
Sometimes in colloquial speech, only apa is used instead of apakah. Normally, apa is translated as "what." However, in this general question, it is not translated and simply serves the function of creating a question. For convenience, it can be understood that apakah is translated as "whether" or "is it true that."
- Apa itu kamar tidur? – Is that a bedroom?
- Apa ini kulkas? – Is this a refrigerator?
Sometimes in colloquial speech both apakah and even apa are missed and the question is constructed only with the help of intonation.
Di kamar ini ada jendela? – Is there a window in this room?
Itu kamar tidur? - Is there a bedroom?
1.3 Can I...? Is it possible...? Bisakah, bolehkah
This type of question is formed using the verbs bisa (physically able, like the English "can") and boleh (having permission, like the English "may"). If the suffix -kah is omitted, the question is indicated by intonation and the word bisa (boleh).
Word order:
Bolehkah, bisakah, boleh, bisa – are placed at the beginning of the sentence. The rest of the words follow the order of a regular declarative sentence.
- Bolehkah saya lihat? - May I see?
- Boleh saya lihat? - May I see?
- Bisakah saya lihat laut dari lantai kedua? – Can I see the ocean from the second floor?
- Bisa saya lihat laut dari lantai kedua? – Can I see the ocean from the second floor?
2. Alternative questions
In an alternative question, two or more answer options are provided, and it is expected that the respondent will choose one of them, possibly adding some additional information. The signal word for such a question is atau (or).
If the interrogative word apakah is omitted, the question is indicated by intonation and the word atau.
- Apakah kamu suka kopi atau teh? – Do you like coffee or tea?
- Kamu suka kopi atau teh? – Do you like coffee or tea?
2.1 ... or...? Apakah... atau...?
Apakah... atau...?
atau – or
Word order:
Apakah comes at the beginning of the sentence. Atau separates the alternatives.
- Apakah kolam renang itu besar atau kecil? – Is that swimming pool big or small?
- Kolam itu besar sekali. – The pool is very big.
- Apakah dia pemilik atau pengurus? – Is he the owner or the manager?
- Dia pengurus saja. – He's just the manager.
2.2 What kind of... or...?
Bagaimana… atau…?
Bagaimana – 1) how; 2) what kind of
Word order:
Bagaimana can be placed at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence. Alternatives are separated by the particle atau.
- Bagaimana tempat parkir itu, besar atau kecil? – How is that parking space, big or small?
- Meubel ini bagaimana, baru atau lama? – What kind of furniture is this, new or old?
3. Dividing questions (“... isn’t it?”, “..., yes?”)
In a question, a statement is first given, and then a question tail is added to negate the statement. Or an approval is given, and then a confirmation request is added.
There are words that signal such a question - atau tidak (atau bukan, atau belum) or ya.
If the question word apakah is omitted, then the sign of the question is the intonation and the phrase atau tidak (atau bukan, atau belum).
3.1...or not? (...isn't it? ...isn't it?) Apakah... atau tidak (bukan)?
Apakah... atau tidak?
Apakah… atau bukan?
Apakah... atau belum?
If you miss one alternative to an alternative question, you can replace it with the negation atau tidak (atau bukan) in case it will be clear what exactly you missed.
Tidak is used when the question is put to an adjective or verb.
Bukan is used when a question is put to a noun.
Belum - not yet...
Word order:
Apakah is placed at the beginning of the sentence. Atau tidak (bukan, belum) is at the end of the sentence.
- Apakah dia masak atau tidak? – Is he cooking or not?
- Apakah rumah itu besar atau tidak? – Is that house big or not?
- Apakah ini dapur atau bukan? – Is this the kitchen or not?
- Apakah rumah itu diperbaiki atau belum? – Has that house been repaired or not yet?
If apakah is omitted, the sentences will remain equally understandable:
- Dia masak atau tidak? – Is he cooking or not?
- Rumah itu besar atau tidak? – Is that house big or not?
- Ini dapur atau bukan? – Is this the kitchen or not?
- Rumah itu diperbaiki atau belum? – Has that house been repaired or not yet?
In such a question, if you omit everything possible, including the interrogative words Apakah and apa, and even atau, then in the "tail" you can only use bukan, regardless of what is being questioned:
- Dia masak bukan? – Is he cooking or not?
- Rumah itu besar bukan? – Is that house big or not?
- Ini dapur bukan? – Is this the kitchen or not?
- Rumah itu diperbaiki bukan? – Has that house been repaired or not yet?
3.2... or not? (...isn't it? ...isn't it?) ... -kan?
Bukan can sometimes be shortened to kan. But as a rule, if the questioner definitely wants to receive an affirmative answer.
... kan?
Word order:
Kan is placed either at the end of a sentence or before the word that is being “questioned.”
Rumah ini kecil kan? – This house is small, isn’t it?
Rumah ini kan kecil? - This house is small, isn't it?
3.3 “..., yes?”, “..., ya?”
..., ya?
Word order:
As in a regular declarative sentence. "Ya?" (“yes?”) is at the end of the sentence.
Rumah ini besar, ya? - This house is big, right?
4. Special questions (“What?” “Who?” (“Whose?”) “Where?” (“Where?” “From?”) “How much?” “When?” “How?” “Why?” Why?” “Which?” (“Which?” “Which?” “Which?”)
The question is posed to one of the members of the proposal.
The question must contain a question word.
The answer to the question is not intended to be “yes” or “no.”
4.1 What...? Ara...?
Ara? (what?) used for objects and animals.
Word order:
Apa can appear at the beginning or end of a sentence.
Apa ini? - What is this?
Ini apa? - What is this?
Apa ini yang ada di meja dapur? – What is that on the kitchen table?
Apa alamatnya rumah? – What is the address of this house?
4.2 Who...? Siara...?
…. siapa?
Siara? (who?) used for people.
Word order:
The word siapa can appear at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.
Siapa ini? - Who is this?
Ini siapa? - Who is this?
Siapa tinggal di rumah ini? - Who lives in this house?
Siapa membersihkan di rumah? – Who cleans the house?
4.3 Whose...? Siapa…?
(noun) + siapa…?
…(noun) + siapa…?
…(noun) + siapa?
Siapa – who? whose? Siapa can be used to indicate ownership of an object if the word follows the noun.
Word order:
(noun) + siapa can be placed in different parts of the sentence, as long as they are together. This is because siapa after the noun becomes its modifier.
- Ini mobil siapa? – Whose car is this?
- Ini mobil siapa yang diparkir di dekat kolam renang? - Whose car is parked near the swimming pool?
- Mobil siapa diparkir di dekat kolam renang? - Whose car is parked near the swimming pool?
If you mix up the word order, you might ask the wrong question. For example:
- Siapa ibu itu? – Who is that lady?
- Itu ibu siapa? – Whose mother is that?
4.4 Where? Di mana?
Di mana...?
...di mana?
Word order:
Di mana can appear at the beginning or at the end of an interrogative sentence.
Di mana bapak tinggal? -Where does the gentleman live?
Bapak tinggal di mana? -Where does the gentleman live?
4.5 Where? Ke mana?
Ke mana...? mana?
Word order:
Ke mana can appear at the beginning or at the end of an interrogative sentence.
Dia pergi ke mana? -Where is he going?
Ke mana dia pergi? -Where is he going?
4.6 Where? Dari mana?
Dari mana...?
... dari mana?
Word order:
Dari mana can be at the beginning or at the end of an interrogative sentence.
Dari mana anda pulang? -Where are you returning from?
Anda pulang dari mana? -Where are you returning from?
4.7 How much? Berapa?
... berapa?
Word order:
Berapa can appear at the beginning or end of an interrogative sentence.
Berapa is often used before nouns containing in their meaning the components “cost, weight, size, quantity in pieces” (harga, ongkos, meter, buah, kilo, liter, tahun, bulan, jam, menit, detik, orang etc).
Harga – price (price of a material item)
Ongkos – price (amount of payment for the service)
Buah – thing (fruit)
Tahun – year
Bulan - month
Jam - hour
Menit - minute
Detik - second
Orang - man
Berapa ongkos perbulan? – What is the cost per month?
Berapa meter tinggi rumah ini? - How many meters is the height of this house?
Berapa liter isinya botol ini? - How many liters are in this bottle?
Berapa harga kulkas ini? – How much does this refrigerator cost?
How much does it weigh...? Berapa berat...?
berat - heavy
Berapa berat mesin cuci ini? – How much does this washing machine weigh?
What is the magnitude of...? Berapa besar...?
Often used in questions about the amount of money
besar – big
Berapa besar gaji dia? - What is her salary?
What is the quantity...? Berapa jumlah...?
On the question of the number of specific individuals united on any basis of social or professional affiliation
jumlah - amount, quantity
- Berapa jumlah orang di rumahnya? – What is the number of people in this house?
- Berapa jauh sampai kota? - How far is it to the city?
- Berapa jam saya perlu untuk isi kolam renang ini? – How many hours do I need to fill this swimming pool?
- Jam berapa…? – What time is it? (At what time...?)
- … jam berapa? – At what time...?
- Jam berapa saya bisa tiba di rumah? – What time can I arrive at the house?
- Ibu selesai bersih rumahnya jam berapa? – What time will madam finish cleaning the house?
- Berapa lama…? – How long ago...?
- Berapa lama anda tinggal di sini? - How long have you been living here?
In questions with berapa in combination with the words mentioned above, the construction ... berapa (harga, ongkos, meter, liter, berat, besar, jumlah, jauh, lama)-nya? can be used.
- Buku itu berapa harganya? - How much does this book cost?
- Orang di rumah kamu berapa jumlahnya? - How many people are there in your house?
4.8 Which one? Keberapa?
…yang keberapa…?
... yang keberapa?
Word order:
Yang keberapa is placed after the noun it refers to.
Rumah ibu di jalan itu yang keberapa? – What is the name of the lady’s house on that street?
4.8 When? Kapan?
Word order:
Kapan is placed at the beginning of the sentence.
Kapan saya bisa lihat rumah ini? – When can I see this house?
Kapan saya bisa mulai sewa rumah ini? – When can I start renting this house?
The words bila, apabila, bilamana are also used instead of kapan, but much less frequently.
4.9 Bagaimana? Gimana? How?
Bagaimana is used in formal speech. Gimana - colloquial.
Word order:
Bagaimana (gimana) is placed at the beginning of the sentence.
Bagaimana saya bisa bayar listrik? – How can I pay for electricity?
4.10 Why? Kenapa? Mengapa?
Mengapa is more often used in formal speech. Kenapa - colloquially.
Word order:
Mengapa (kenapa) is placed at the beginning of the sentence.
Kenapa saya tidak bisa pakai kolam renang ini? – Why can’t I use this pool?
Kenapa kamar ini ditutup? – Why is this room closed?
4.11 Buat apa? For what?
Buat apa...?
…buat apa?
Buat – 1) to do, create 2) for 3) in order to
Membuat - 1) to do, create
Word order:
Buat apa can be placed either at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.
Buat apa ada begitu banyak kucing di rumah? – Why are there so many cats in the house?
Buat apa ada kulkas di kamar tidur? – Why is there a refrigerator in the bedroom?
4.12 Which one? Which? Which? Which? What the...? Apa...?
(noun) + apa...?
... (noun) + apa?
In certain cases, apa is translated not as we already discussed at the very beginning of the lesson (what?), but as “which, which, which, which; what the” if it follows a noun.
Word order:
(noun) + apa can be located either at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.
- Ini kamar apa? -What kind of room is this?
- Kamar apa ini? - What is the room?
- Ini kamar dapur – This is the kitchen.
4.13 Which one? Which? Which? Which? What the...? Bagaimana
…(noun)… bagaimana?
Bagaimana (noun)…?
Bagaimana is sometimes used to ask about the quality of something or the subjective assessment of something. In this case, you can translate it as “what, what or what” or “how do you like...?” In case of such a question, bagaimana can also be shortened to colloquial gimana.
Word order:
Bagaimana is placed both before and after the object about which the question is asked.
- Bagaimana meja ini? -What is this table like?
- Meja ini bagaimana? -What is this table like?
- Meja ini bagus. - This table is good.
4.14 Which one? Yang mana?
(noun) yang mana…?
… (noun) yang mana…?
Word order:
Yang mana should come after the noun it refers to, meaning after the modified word.
- Rumah yang mana lebih bagus? – Which house is better?
- Kamar yang mana paling besar di rumah itu? – Which room is the biggest in that house?
In spoken language, the word yang is often omitted in this type of question.
Regarding the use of interrogative words in special questions, if you add saja (only) to any of them, the resulting phrase will acquire a new meaning.
- Apa saja – anything
- Siapa saja – anyone
- Di mana saja – anywhere
- Ke mana saja – anywhere
- Dari mana saja – from anywhere
- Berapa saja – any amount
- Keberapa saja – any (ordinal) number
- Kapan saja – anytime
- Bagaimana saja – anyhow
- Kenapa saja – for any reason
- Bua tapa saja – for any purpose
- Yang mana saja – any (of the) which
Which construction to choose if a question can be asked in different ways?
If you are a beginner – use the simplest one for yourself. The one you can remember without looking at a cheat sheet. If you forget interrogative words in general alternative or interrogative questions – omit them initially and ask the question using intonation.
But once you feel confident – elevate the level of your proficiency, incorporating more complex constructions. You will definitely succeed!
LESSON 11: Home vocabulary and dialogue with the landlord
As promised in the previous lesson, we are now learning vocabulary on the topic “house” and reading a dialogue about Ivan, who rents a house from a Balinese aunt.
House and rooms
balai - hall
balcon - balcony
bangunan - building
beranda - veranda
dapur - kitchen
garasi - garage
gedung - building
gedung bertingkat - multi-storey building
gudang - storage
kamar - room
kamar anak - children's room
kamar kecil - toilet
kamar kerja - office
kamar makan - dining room
kamar mandi - bathroom
kamar tamu - living room
kamar tidur - bedroom
kamar umum - common room
kotak surat - mailbox
lift - elevator
loteng - attic
pintu belakang - back door
ruang - space, room
rumah - house
kamar - room
daerah - districts, area
atap - roof
gerbang - gate
halaman - yard
kebun - garden
kebun buah-buahan - orchard
kolam renang - swimming pool
lapangan - field
lapangan golf - golf course
pagar - fence
petak bunga - flower bed
rumput - grass
pohon - tree, bush
Room details
ambang (bendul pintu) - threshold
pinggir jendela - window sill
daun jendela - (leaf, window) window sash
daun pintu - (leaf, door) door
dinding - wall
gagang pintu - door handle
jendela - window opening, window
kaca - glass
kenop panggilan - call button
kunci - key
langit-langit - ceiling
lantai - floor, floor
lukisan - painting, picture
pintu - doorway, entrance
keramik - ceramics, ceramic tiles
wastafel - sink
bangku - bench
cermin - mirror
gantungan dinding - wall hanger
gantungan pakaian - clothes hanger
kap lampu - lampshade
kasur - mattress
kasur udara - air mattress
kursi - chair
kursi bertangan - armchair
kursi goyang - rocking chair
kursi lipat - folding chair
lampu gantung - chandelier
lemari - closet
lemari buku - bookcase
lemari pakaian - wardrobe
meja - table
meubel - furniture
pengering pakaian (rak gantungan) - clothes dryer
peti besar - chest
rak - shelf
rak buku - bookshelf
sofa - sofa
tempat sampah - trash can
tempat tidur - bed
asbak - ashtray
baki - tray
baskom - basin
botol - bottle
cangkir - mug
corong - funnel
ember - bucket
garpu - fork
gelas - glass
guci - jar
kendi - jug
keranjang - basket
ketel - teapot
kotak - box
kotrek - corkscrew
lepek - gravy boat
mangkok - bowl
mengukur kendi - measuring cup
panci - pan
parutan - grater
pecah-belah - dishes
pembuka - bottle opener
penggorengan, bajan, wajan - frying pan
piring - plate
piring kecil - saucer
piring soup - deep plate
pisau - knife
saringan - sieve
sendok - spoon
talenan - cutting board
teko - teapot for tea leaves
teko kopi - coffee pot
timbangan - scales
vas - vase
Bed linen and textiles
bantal - pillow
bantal guling - bolster pillow
cadar - bedspread
gorden, tirai - curtain
handuk - towel
karpet - carpet
kasur - mattress
kasur pegas - spring mattress
keset - rug
mantel mandi - bathrobe
sarung bantal - pillowcase
selimut - blanket
seperei dan sarung bantal - bed linen
seprei - sheet
taplak meja - tablecloth
(lampu) senter - flashlight
AC (ase) - air conditioner
audio - audio system
blender - blender
bola lampu - light bulb
dispenser air - water dispenser
kipas angin - fan
kipas angin dinding - wall fan
kompor - stove
kompor gas - gas stove
kompor listrik - electric stove
konsol - remote control
crane - tap
kulkas, lemari es - refrigerator
lampu - lamp
lampu berdiri - floor lamp
lemari pembeku, freezer - freezer
mesin cuci - washing machine
mesin cuci dan pengering laundry - washing machine with dryer
mesin jahit - sewing machine
mesin pembuat kopi - coffee maker
mesin pencuci piring - dishwasher
mesin penggiling kopi - coffee grinder
microwave - microwave oven
oven elektrik - electric oven
pemanas air - water heater
pemanggang roti - toaster
pendingin udara - air cooler
pengekstrak jus - juicer
pengering rambut, hair dryer - hair dryer
penggiling daging - meat grinder
penyedot debu, pengisap debu - vacuum cleaner
peralatan rumah, alat rumah tangga - household appliances
pompa galon - water bottle pump
rice cooker - rice cooker
setrika - iron
sistem stereo - stereo system
televisi - television
timbangan badan - floor scales for the body
ventilasi - ventilation
video - video player
In the case of household appliances, many of the names of its types are taken directly from the English language. Moreover, they are written the same way as in English.
Orientation in space
di belakang - for
di depan - before
di sebelah kiri - left
di sebelah kanan - on the right
di antara - between
di tengah - in the middle between
di atas - above, from above
di bawah - under, below
di - on, in
di dalam, di - inside
di luar - outside
di dekat - near
di samping - about, next to
pada - on, at
Orientation in space
di belakang - for
di depan - before
di sebelah kiri - left
di sebelah kanan - on the right
di antara - between
di tengah - in the middle between
di atas - above, from above
di bawah - under, below
di - on, in
di dalam, di - inside
di luar - outside
di dekat - near
di samping - about, next to
pada - on, at
pulang - to return home
tutup (menutup) - close
buka (membuka) - open
tinggal - to live, to reside
naik (menaiki) - to rise
turun (menurun) - go down
cat (mencat) - to paint
sewa (menyewa) - rent
sewakan (menyewakan) - to rent
periksa (memeriksa) - check
masuk (memasuki) - to enter
keluar (mengeluarkan) - to go out
meneken perjanjian, meneken kontrak - sign an agreement
membatalkan perjanjian, membatalkan kontrak - terminate the contract
penyewa - tenant
tetangga - neighbor
penduduk - resident, lodger
pengurus - manager
tukang kebun - gardener
penjaga - watchman
penjaga malam - night watchman
juru masak, koki - cook
pengasuh - nanny
tukang pembersih - cleaning lady
pemilik - owner
supir, pengemudi - driver
tamu - guest
pembantu - domestic servant
Properties, qualities
luas - spacious
sempit - cramped
pengap - stuffy
bercat - painted
baru - new
lama - old
tinggi - tall
rendah - low
rusak - broken (technique)
patah - broken (in case of cracks or breaks)
pecah - broken into pieces (mirror, glass, tire)
baik, yang keadaannya baik - serviceable
ramai - noisy, crowded
berguna - useful
nyaman - comfortable
Objects, animals and problems
fasilitas - amenities
gunting - scissors
kunci - key
palu - hammer
pita pengukur, pita ukur - roulette
sampah - garbage
sekotak korek api - box of matches
korek api - matches
sistem alarm - alarm
tisu toilet - toilet paper
kontrak, perjanjian - agreement
semut - ant
lalat - fly
nyamuk - mosquito
tikus besar - rat
tikus - mouse
cicak - house wall lizard
kadal - floor lizard
ular - snake
anjing - dog
kucing - cat
jamur - fungus
retak - crack
noda - spot
bocor - leak
If you have any Indonesians living nearby who own or rent a house, try to interview them about their home. Aim to ask at least ten questions. If you have a voice recorder on your phone, try to record this dialogue and later transcribe it onto paper or into a computer file.
Don't worry about memorizing. Just try to repeat this procedure if you have the time and desire. If during the conversation, you feel that you didn't know the translation of a certain word, consult a dictionary and try to learn it.
All materials have been tested on live Indonesians. No native speakers were harmed in the preparation of this lesson.
LESSON 12: Going to a restaurant
In this lesson, you will learn what "cat rice" is and what it is made of, as well as which Indonesian dish was named the most delicious in the world according to CNN.
Finally, after several hungry lessons following a class dedicated to buying juice, we return to a topic that is close to everyone's stomach. This lesson will help you not get lost if you decide to go to a dining establishment in Indonesia where the staff doesn't speak English. I won't dissuade you. Probably because after India, any restaurants, snack bars, Padang cuisine, and warungs don't seem so intimidating anymore.
I want to warn especially enthusiastic lovers of culinary extremes:
1) Approach the "spicy" characteristic of dishes with understanding, especially if you are eating something in Bali or Manado. The residents of these places are the most fervent consumers of hellishly spicy food.
2) If you happen to indulge in spicy food, drink as much water as possible to extinguish the fire in your stomach. If you don't drink enough, stomach upset is guaranteed.
3) Choose local establishments with many customers. Most likely, these people have been there more than once and have not suffered any poisoning there.
4) If you want to take a risk and eat at a street-side establishment without its own premises, at least out of curiosity, inquire about the conditions under which the dishes are washed there. Perhaps after that, you might reconsider.
5) Don’t get carried away with a lot of local food in inexpensive establishments in principle, because the food contains a lot of oil and the cooking utensils are very rarely washed. Take care of yourself.
Where to go?
Typical Indonesian dining establishments.
- kafe - cafe
- kaki lima (literally "five legs") - a mobile two-wheeled cart with a small table, from which the owner sells street food
- restoran - restaurant
- rumah makan (literally "eating house") - restaurant
- warkop (warung kopi) - cafe (abbreviation)
- warung - small shop, stall, snack bar
- warung makan (literally "eating stall") - snack bar
- warung tenda (literally "tent stall") - a snack bar without a permanent building, organized on the street by covering the space with banners.
List of tableware you might encounter, some of which have already been covered in the lesson about the home. I'll repeat those, and also include containers whose names might be useful in a restaurant.
- asbak - ashtray
- baki - tray
- botol - bottle
- bungkus - packet, wrap
- cangkir - cup
- garpu - fork
- gelas - glass
- kendi - jug
- kotak - box
- lepek - sauce dish
- mangkuk - bowl
- piring - plate
- piring kecil - small plate
- piring sup - soup plate
- pisau - knife
- sendok - spoon
- teko - teapot
- teko kopi - coffee pot
In the lesson on buying vegetables, we already discussed the counting words for items used when there is more than one. For dishes in a restaurant, counting words are also used, and this time we learned more of them.
If you are ordering soup, it is more accurate to say:
- Satu piring sop or sepiring sop
In the case of juice:
- Satu gelas jus or segelas sop
Don't worry if you don't memorize all the counting words at once or forget them at the right moment. In such cases, you can replace the counting word with a more universal one – porsi (portion).
Or another option that is used colloquially when ordering dishes:
Nasi goreng - satu – one fried rice
Cap cai - dua – two chapchais
Es teh manis – tiga – three sweet iced teas
Properties of products and dishes
asam - sour
asin - salty
basah - wet, moist
dingin - cold
enak - tasty, pleasant
gurih - savory
garing - dry, dehydrated, crispy
hangat - warm
haus - thirsty; saya (aku) haus - I am thirsty
kelat - astringent (taste)
kenyang - full (satisfied after eating)
keras - hard
kering - dry, crunchy
lapar - hungry
lemak (berlemak) - fatty
lembek, lembut, empuk - soft
lezat - delicious
manis - sweet
mantap - tasty - colloquial term
berminyak - oily; minyak – oil
matang - ripe; terlalu matang - overripe
pahit - bitter
panas - hot
pedas - spicy
sedap - delicious
segar - fresh
sepat - tangy
siap, sedia - ready
tawar - bland
kental - thick
encer - liquid
Indonesian cooking methods and additional useful words
api - fire
asap (mengasap) - to smoke
bakar (membakar) - to grill, barbecue
bakar di bambu (membakar di bambu) - to roast in bamboo
goreng (menggoreng) - to fry with a significant amount of oil
kayu bakar - firewood
kukus (mengukus) - to steam
opor - a dish cooked in coconut milk, a method of cooking in coconut milk
oven (mengoven) - to bake in the oven
panggang (memanggang) - to grill, barbecue, but with a greater distance from the fire than with bakar
pepes - a method of cooking food in a banana leaf
rebus (merebus) - boiled
tumis (menumis) - to stir-fry with a small amount of oil
uap - steam
I have emphasized in previous lessons that word order is important in the Indonesian language, with the object preceding its modifier. However, when it comes to cooking methods, this rule needs to be examined more closely.
Fried chicken – object (chicken "ayam") + modifier (fried "goreng") = ayam goreng
Grilled duck – object (duck "bebek") + modifier (grilled "bakar") = bebek bakar
Boiled noodles – object (noodles "mie") + modifier (boiled "rebus") = mie rebus
However, a completely different situation arises when we consider cooking methods like "opor" or "pepes." In this case, they function as the name of the dish. The ingredients used in these dishes become their modifiers.
Chicken Opor - object (Opor "opor") + modifier (chicken "ayam") = opor ayam
Tofu Pepes - object (Pepes "pepes") + modifier (made from tofu "tahu") = pepes tahu
How to learn it? Don't memorize it, just use these words more often, and the memorization will come naturally.
This time, alongside the spices we learned in the market shopping lesson, let's add ready-made seasonings and sauces that you might encounter in a restaurant.
- asam Jawa (tamarind) - tamarind
- batang jahe - fresh ginger root
- batang kunyit - fresh turmeric root
- bawang merah - shallots
- bawang putih - garlic
- bawang Bombay - onion
- bubuk - powder, ground
- bumbu - spice, seasoning
- bumbu basah - fresh seasoning ("wet seasoning")
- bumbu kering - dried seasoning ("dry seasoning")
- bumbu masak - cooking seasoning
- bumbu segar - fresh seasoning ("fresh seasoning")
- cabe - chili pepper, small and very spicy
- cengkeh - clove
- daun jeruk - lime leaf
- daun pandan - pandan leaf
- daun bawang - green onion
- halus - finely ground, noble, soft, sensitive, delicate
- jahe - ginger
- jahe bubuk - ground ginger
- kari - curry
- kasar - coarsely ground, coarse
- kayu manis - cinnamon
- kecap - soy sauce, tomato sauce
- kecap asin - salty soy sauce
- kecap manis - sweet soy sauce
- kemangi - basil
- kemiri - candlenut
- ketumbar - coriander
- kunyit - turmeric
- kunyit bubuk - ground turmeric
- lada - pepper
- lada hitam - black pepper
- lada merah - cayenne pepper
- laos - galangal
- merica - pepper
- pala - nutmeg
- sambal - spicy chili sauce
- saos, saus - sauce
- saos kacang - peanut sauce
- saus - sauce
- saus cabai - chili sauce
- saus ikan - fish sauce, fermented fish sauce
- saus tomat - tomato sauce
- sere, sereh - lemongrass
- tauco, taucu - fermented yellow soybean sauce
- terasi - shrimp paste
- vetsin - monosodium glutamate
Groceries and other products
acar - pickles, pickled cucumbers
adonan - dough
cuka - vinegar
gandum - wheat
garam - salt
jamur - mushrooms
keju - cheese
makanan kaleng - canned food
margarin - margarine
mentega - butter
minyak - vegetable liquid oil
minyak goreng - cooking oil
minyak kelapa - coconut oil from coconut meat
minyak sawit - palm oil from industrial palm seeds
santan, santan kelapa - coconut milk
telur - egg
tepung - flour
tepung beras - rice flour
tepung terigu - wheat flour
terigu - wheat
zaitun - olives
minyak zaitun - olive oil
Vegetarians, please skip this list. Here are innocent animals commonly consumed in Indonesia:
- anjing - dog
- ayam - chicken
- ayam goreng - fried chicken
- babi - pig
- bebek - duck
- buaya - crocodile
- daging - meat
- daging anjing (RW) - dog meat; the abbreviation RW (rukun warga) is used in the name of dog meat to avoid offending the religious sentiments of Muslims
- daging ayam - chicken meat
- daging babi - pork
- daging kambing - goat meat
- daging kerbau - buffalo meat
- daging sapi - beef
- ikan - fish
- ikan cakalang - skipjack tuna
- ikan hiu - shark
- ikan kakap - snapper
- ikan laut - sea fish
- ikan mas - (fish, gold) carp
- ikan pari - stingray
- ikan paus - whale
- ikan tenggiri - mackerel
- ikan terbang - flying fish
- ikan tuna - tuna
- kambing - goat
- kelelawar - bat
- kelinci - rabbit
- kepiting - crab
- kerbau - buffalo
- kodok - frog
- lele - catfish
- penyu - sea turtle
- tikus - mouse (usually field mice are cooked)
- tiram - oyster
- udang - shrimp
- ular - snake
And finally, what everyone usually looks forward to. I recommend reading this list on a full stomach. Of course, not all the food served in Indonesia is included, but listing everything is probably only possible in a cookbook. The list is non-vegetarian. I apologize.
- asinan Betawi - pickled Betawi vegetables; typically served with spicy peanut sauce, vinegar, sprinkled with peanuts, and krupuk; Betawi cuisine, Jakarta, Java
- asinan Bogor - pickled Bogor fruits; typically served with spicy peanut sauce, vinegar, sprinkled with peanuts, and krupuk; Bogor cuisine, Java
- ayam bakar - grilled chicken
- ayam betutu - spicy grilled chicken; Balinese cuisine
- ayam goreng - fried chicken
- ayam penyet - smashed fried chicken, usually served with sambal, fresh cucumber, fried tofu, and fried tempeh; East Javanese cuisine
- ayam pop - chicken first boiled, then fried; Padang cuisine, West Sumatra
- babi guling - (rolling pig) suckling pig on a spit; served as broth, meat, crispy skin, blood sausage, spiced meat mixture; Balinese cuisine
- bakmi (bakmi ayam) - wheat noodles, typically cooked with chicken and soy sauce; Chinese cuisine
- bakso (baso) - meatballs; often made from chicken or beef (less commonly fish or shrimp) with added tapioca flour; typically served with broth, vermicelli, tofu, pangsit, fried shallots, and celery
- bakso ayam - chicken meatballs
- bakso bakar - grilled meatballs, skewered like kebabs
- bakso bola tenis or bakso telur - tennis ball-sized meatballs with a chicken egg inside
- bakso gepeng - flat-shaped meatballs
- bakso ikan - fish meatballs
- bakso keju - meatballs with a cheese filling
- bakso kotak - square-shaped meatballs
- bakso Malang - meatballs from Malang (East Java); served with noodles, tofu, siomai (see siomai)
- bakso udang - shrimp meatballs
- bakso urat - meatballs with tendons and tough meat
- baluik goreng - crispy fried eel; Padang cuisine, West Sumatra
- batagor (bakso, tahu, goreng) - fried fish dumplings (siomai); served with cabbage, potatoes, bitter melon slices, tofu, lime wedge, and peanut sauce or sweet soy sauce; Sundanese cuisine
- bebek betutu - spicy grilled duck; Balinese cuisine
- betutu - spicy grilled or steamed meat; Balinese cuisine
- bihun goreng - fried thin rice vermicelli
- bubur - porridge; if the grain is not specified, it is often rice porridge
- bubur ayam - (porridge, chicken) rice porridge with chicken; served with fried shallots, peanuts, and kerupuk
- bubur kacang hijau - (porridge, bean (nut), green) mung bean porridge
- bubur ketan hitam (bubur pulut hitam, bubur injun) - black glutinous rice porridge; served with coconut milk and palm sugar
- burasa (buras) - rice cooked with coconut milk in a rectangular envelope made of banana leaves; used as a side dish; originates from the Bugis and Makassar cultures - South Sulawesi
- cakalang fufu - smoked striped tuna; usually served with rice, sambal, potato salad, and noodles; Manadonese cuisine, North Sulawesi
- cap cai - stir-fried vegetables - cauliflower, cabbage, napa cabbage, carrots, corn, leeks, garlic; can be vegetarian or include meat, fish, or seafood; Chinese cuisine, where it is known as zácài or cha̍p-chhài
- cah - stir-fried vegetables served with enough broth; can be prepared as a vegetarian dish or with meat or seafood broth
- cah kangkung - stir-fried water spinach, kangkung
- cah sawi putih - stir-fried Chinese cabbage
- coto (soto, sop, sup) - soup
- coto Makassar (coto Mangkasara) - soup from Makassar (South Sulawesi); prepared from beef often with the addition of offal - intestines, liver, lungs, heart, tripe, or cow's brain; Makassarese cuisine, South Sulawesi
- daun ubi tumbuk - cassava leaves (ubi) in coconut milk; origin - Padang, West Sumatra
- dendeng - thinly sliced crispy beef; Padang cuisine, West Sumatra
- fu yung hai (pu yung hai) - omelet; can be prepared with bean sprouts, bamboo shoots, onions, mushrooms, meat, or seafood; Chinese cuisine
- gado-gado (lotek) - vegetable salad with spicy peanut sauce; uses potatoes, beans, spinach, corn, sprouts, tofu, tempeh, cabbage; Sundanese cuisine
- gorengan - "fried snacks" fried bananas, corn and vegetable fritters (bakwan), tofu, tempeh, cassava, etc.; goreng (menggoreng) - to fry
- gudeg - Jogjakarta-style jackfruit stew with chicken, coconut milk, and egg
- gulai - stew
- gulai ati - stew made from cow's liver; Padang cuisine, West Sumatra
- gulai ayam - chicken stew
- gulai cancang - stew with beef and cow's innards; Padang cuisine, West Sumatra
- gulai gajeboh - stew made from beef fat; Padang cuisine, West Sumatra
- gulai itik - (stew, duck) duck stew; Padang cuisine, West Sumatra
- gulai kepala ikan kakap merah - (stew, head, fish, red snapper) stew made from the head of red snapper; Padang cuisine, West Sumatra
- gulai otak - (stew, brain) stew made from cow's brain; Padang cuisine, West Sumatra
- gulai sapi - beef stew
- gulai sumsum - beef bone marrow stew; Padang cuisine, West Sumatra
- gulai tunjang - beef tendon stew; Padang cuisine, West Sumatra
- gulai usus - (stew, intestines) beef intestines stew, often filled with egg or tofu; Padang cuisine, West Sumatra
- hidangan - a variety of dishes, often in a hotel or restaurant setting
- ikan bakar - grilled fish
- ikan goreng - fried fish
- kapurung - fish or chicken soup with sago flour dumplings; Luwu cuisine, South Sulawesi
- kepiting saus tiram - (crab, oyster sauce) crab in oyster sauce; Chinese cuisine
- keripik - small snacks
- kerupuk (krupuk, keropok, kroepoek) - fried crisps made from starch, snacks
- kerupuk ikan - fish crackers
- kerupuk jangek - beef skin crackers; Padang cuisine, West Sumatra
- kerupuk kulit - skin crackers
- kerupuk udang - shrimp crackers
- ketoprak - dish with tofu, vegetables, pressed rice, rice vermicelli under peanut sauce; Jakarta cuisine
- ketupat (kupat) - rice cooked inside a small woven palm leaf basket; used as a side dish; on Java, the woven basket of ketupat is associated with Muslim symbols and the tradition of Lebaran celebration; it is believed that the name kupat in Javanese is associated with ngaku lepat, meaning admitting mistakes and asking for forgiveness, which is traditional during Lebaran; it is also believed that the interwoven leaves symbolize human mistakes, and the white pure rice inside represents one's untarnished essence and liberation from sins
- krechek - beef skin cooked in coconut milk; Padang cuisine, West Sumatra
- kuah - sauce
- kwetiau - flat rice noodles
- kwetiau goreng - stir-fried flat rice noodles; usually prepared with garlic, onion, meat or seafood, peppers, Napa cabbage, cabbage, tomatoes, eggs, sweet soy sauce; Chinese cuisine
- laksa - spicy noodle soup; Malaysian cuisine, traditional in Bogor and Cibinong (West Java), Betawi (Jakarta), Palembang (South Sumatra), and Banjarmasin (South Kalimantan)
- lalapan - chicken or fish served with fresh cucumber and basil, a very common dish in tent-style warungs (warung tenda)
- lauk - side dish for rice
- lauk-pauk - various side dishes for rice
- lawar - a mix of finely chopped vegetables, grated coconut, meat, and spices; Balinese cuisine
- lawar babi - lawar with pork; Balinese cuisine
- lodeh - coconut milk soup with vegetables - young jackfruit, eggplants, long beans, chayote, tofu, tempeh, flavored with shallots, garlic, coriander, turmeric, shrimp paste; chicken may also be used; Javanese cuisine
- lontong - rice, cooked in a cylindrical shape in a banana leaf; used as a side dish
- lumpia - spring roll; filling can include bamboo shoots, chicken or shrimp, tofu, carrots, rice vermicelli; Chinese cuisine, also known as rùnbǐng, jūn-piáⁿ, lūn-piáⁿ
- makanan - food, cuisine (as a collection of dishes); makan (memakan) - to eat
- martabak (murtabak, mutabbaq) - stuffed pancake resembling an omelet; usually savory but can also be sweet, known as martabak manis; mutabaq or mutabbaq in Arabic means "folded"; Yemeni and Indian cuisine
- masakan - cuisine (as a collection of dishes), cooked food; masak (memasak) - to cook
- mie - noodles, wheat noodles, often referred to as "yellow noodles"
- mie ayam - noodles with chicken
- mie goreng - fried noodles
- mie rebus - boiled noodles
- nasgor (nasi goreng) - fried rice (abbreviation)
- nasi - cooked rice
- nasi ambeng (nasi ambang) - rice cooked with chicken curry or chicken in soy sauce, vegetables, fried noodles, salted fish; Javanese cuisine
- nasi bakar - rice cooked in a banana leaf on a grill
- nasi campur - (mixed rice) rice with various side dishes, sometimes called nasi rames; the base is white rice, and the additions include vegetables, meat, fish, seafood, tofu, tempeh, sauces
- nasi goreng - (fried rice) fried rice; prepared with sweet soy sauce, shallots, garlic, tamarind, chili; can be vegetarian or prepared with the addition of egg, chicken, shrimp, anchovies; each Indonesian province has its own variations of nasi goreng
- nasi goreng gila - (crazy fried rice) fried rice with a variety of meat toppings (chicken breast, chicken liver, bakso, sausages, mushrooms, shrimp, etc. – sometimes all together)
- nasi kebuli - spicy rice cooked in goat broth, milk, and ghee; believed to be derived from Kabul Palaw - a rice dish from Kabul; Betawi cuisine, Jakarta, Java
- nasi kucing (sego kucing) - (cat rice) consists of a small portion of rice with dried fish, tempeh, and sambal wrapped in a coconut leaf; no cat meat, just cat-sized; Jogjakarta, Semarang, Surakarta cuisine (Java)
- nasi kuning - (yellow rice) rice colored yellow with turmeric
- nasi lemak - (fatty rice) rice cooked in coconut milk with pandan leaves; acquired the name because it was initially prepared in very fatty cream; Malaysian cuisine
- nasi pecel - rice served with vegetables and spicy pecel peanut sauce; East Javanese cuisine
- nasi putih - (white rice) plain rice
- nasi tumpeng - (cone rice) cone-shaped rice, usually with turmeric, served during celebrations in Java, Bali, Madura; the cone is placed in the center of the dish and surrounded by vegetables and meat; symbolizes mountainous land rich in gifts, and the rice cone represents a mountain as a dwelling place for spirits and ancestors; Javanese, Balinese, Madurese cuisine
- nasi uduk - rice cooked in coconut milk with added cloves and lemongrass; a dish from Jakarta, usually served with additions of meat, fish, eggs, vegetables
- opor - a dish prepared in coconut milk, a method of cooking in coconut milk
- opor ayam - chicken in coconut milk with the addition of palm sugar, lemongrass, garlic, shallots, black pepper, coriander, and vegetable oil
- opor bebek - duck opor
- opor tahu - tofu opor
- opor telur - egg opor
- otak-otak - grilled fish cake made from fish mixed with tapioca flour and spices; otak means brain; the name is believed to come from the fact that the dish resembles the color and consistency of the brain
- pangsit - usually small parcels of dough with a meat or seafood filling; similar to dumplings but crispy; if they are prepared without filling, a piece of dough is simply fried in oil
- paniki (kelelawar) - braised bat; Manado, North Sulawesi cuisine
- paru goreng - fried beef lungs; Padang, West Sumatra cuisine
- pasta - pasta
- pecel - spicy peanut sauce
- pecel lele - catfish with peanut sauce
- pempek (mpek-mpek, empek-empek) - fish cake; the dough is made from fish, salt, and tapioca flour; served with a special kuah cuko sauce made from palm sugar, chili, garlic, vinegar, and salt; the invention story tells of an enterprising Chinese immigrant who, upon arriving in Sumatra, was upset by the excessive amount of unsold fish being discarded; the Chinese then came up with the dish pempek, which he began selling from a cart in his village; Palembang, South Sumatra cuisine
- pepes - a method of cooking food in a banana leaf
- pepes ayam - chicken in a banana leaf
- pepes daging - beef in a banana leaf
- pepes ikan mas - carp in a banana leaf
- pepes jamur - mushrooms in a banana leaf
- pepes kodok - frog legs in a banana leaf
- pepes tahu - tofu in a banana leaf
- pepes telur kodok - frog eggs in a banana leaf
- pepes teri - anchovies in a banana leaf
- perkedel kentang - mini potato fritters
- pisang molen - banana wrapped in a piece of dough and fried in oil
- pisgor (pisang goreng) - banana fritters (abbreviation)
- pizza - pizza
- plecing kangkung - stewed water spinach kangkung; Sasak cuisine, Lombok
- puding - pudding
- rendang - meat cooked in coconut milk with a variety of spices - ginger, galangal, turmeric leaves, lemongrass, garlic, shallots, pepper; among the Minangkabau people, rendang is a must during major holidays; rendang became popular because the abundance of spices helped preserve the meat without refrigeration; it is believed that rendang represents the philosophy of the people of West Sumatra; meat symbolizes clan leaders, coconut milk - intellectuals, teachers, poets, and writers, pepper - religious leaders, and the other spices - the entire Minangkabau society; in 2011, CNN recognized rendang as the best among the 50 most delicious dishes in the world; Padang, West Sumatra cuisine
- rendang ayam - chicken rendang
- rendang sapi - beef rendang
- roti cane - pancake with various toppings; roti - bread (also in Hindi, Urdu, North Indian languages, Malay), cane possibly derived from 1) Chennai - a port city in India, from where the dish may have originated 2) channa - a dish from North India consisting of chickpeas with a spicy sauce 3) canai - in Malay means "roll out the dough"; served with fillings of eggs, onions, margarine with sugar, sardines, bananas, tofu, spinach, durian, meat, fish, etc.
- rujak (rojak) - a mix of fruits, vegetables, and tubers (mango, guava, pineapple, bengkoang, cucumber, ubi) with sambal; in Java, it is part of a ceremony held on the 7th month of pregnancy and is served to the expectant mother and guests
- salad - salad
- sambal - spicy sauce; there are dozens of variations depending on the ingredients used
- santapan - table (in terms of a variety of food) more often at home
- sate - satay, small meat skewers
- sate ayam - chicken satay
- sate babi - pork satay
- sate kambing - lamb satay
- sate lilit - spicy skewers of pork, chicken, beef, or fish mixed with coconut flakes, thick coconut milk, lemon juice, shallots, and pepper; Balinese cuisine; lilit in Balinese means "wrapped," and during preparation, the mixture is wrapped around a stick
- sate Padang - Padang satay, grilled meat skewers in thick curry sauce; Padang, West Sumatra cuisine
- sayur asam (sayur asem) - (vegetables, sour) a mix of vegetables (corn, peanuts, jackfruit, long beans, melinjo, Mexican cucumber, etc.); dish from Sundanese, Banten, and Jakarta cuisine
- semur - a type of meat preparation in sweet, thick soy sauce; the sauce uses sweet soy sauce (kecap manis), shallots, onions, garlic, ginger, nutmeg, and cloves, sometimes pepper, coriander, cumin, and cinnamon; Padang, West Sumatra cuisine
- semur daging - beef stewed in sweet soy sauce; Padang, West Sumatra cuisine
- semur tahu - tofu stewed in sweet soy sauce; Padang, West Sumatra cuisine
- sereal - cereal
- siomai (siomay, somay) - a type of dumpling served with potatoes, tofu, eggs, bitter gourd, and cabbage; usually ingredients are chopped and drizzled with sweet soy or peanut sauce; a variation of Chinese dim sum, known as siu mai or shaomai in China
- sop (soto, sroto, tauto, coto, sup) - soup
- sop buntut - oxtail soup with potatoes, carrots, tomatoes, fried shallots, celery, black pepper, nutmeg, garlic, and cloves
- sop buntut goreng - a variation of oxtail soup where the components are fried, and the broth is served separately
- sop kambing - goat meat soup
- sop konro - soup with beef ribs as the main ingredient; Makassar, South Sulawesi cuisine
- sop saudara - (soup, brother) beef soup with rice noodles, potatoes, cow's innards, and eggs; it is believed that the name was invented by the Dollah brothers, who started cooking it and decided that such a name would be close and pleasant to everyone; Pangkep, South Sulawesi cuisine
- sosis - sausage
- soto Ambon - chicken soup seasoned with turmeric, ginger, garlic, lemongrass, and pepper; served with rice, toge (bean sprouts), noodles, celery leaves, fried shallots, fried potatoes, hot sauce, or sweet soy sauce; Ambon, Moluccan Islands cuisine
- soto ayam - chicken soup
- soto babat - (soup, tripe) soup made from cow, goat, or buffalo stomach
- soto Bandung - transparent beef soup with radish pieces; Bandung, Java cuisine
- soto Betawi - beef or beef offal soup, cooked with cow or coconut milk, with fried potatoes and tomatoes; Betawi, Jakarta, Java cuisine
- soto kaki - (soup, foot) soup made from beef tendons and cartilage; Betawi, Jakarta, Java cuisine
- soto Medan - meat or offal soup with coconut milk; served with perkedel (potato fritters), pieces of pre-fried meat; Medan, North Sumatra cuisine
- soto mie - soup with wheat noodles
- soto Padang - Padang beef soup; Padang, West Sumatra cuisine
- soto Pekalongan - soup made using tauchu sauce from fermented soybeans; Pekalongan, Central Java cuisine
- soto tangkar - soup made from chopped beef ribs
- spageti - spaghetti
- tahu - tofu
- tahu gejrot - fried tofu served with a sauce made from sweet soy sauce, palm sugar, and vinegar; Cirebon, West Java cuisine
- tahu goreng - fried tofu
- tahu isi - tofu filled with ingredients usually consisting of toge, fine rice vermicelli (bihun), shallots, and carrots
- tahu sumedang - well-fried tofu; characterized by hollowness inside and a creamy consistency of the interior, spicy in taste; invented by Indonesian Chinese Ong Kino; Sumedang, West Java cuisine
- telur dadar - omelet
- telur goreng - (egg, fry) fried eggs
- telur pindang - eggs boiled in a mixture of water, salt, soy sauce, shallots, and other spices
- telur rebus - (egg, boil) boiled egg
- tempe - tempeh, a cake made from soybeans
- tempe goreng - (tempe, fry) fried tempeh
- tempe orek - tempeh cooked with vegetables and in soy sauce
- teri kacang - fried anchovies with peanuts
- terong balado - eggplant in chili sauce; Padang, West Sumatra cuisine
- tinutuan (bubur Manado) - rice porridge with kangkung, spinach, corn, pumpkin, cassava; often served for breakfast with additions like salted fish, sambal, fried shallots; Manado, North Sulawesi cuisine
- tongseng - dishes made from goat or beef in a curry soup with the addition of sweet soy sauce and vegetables; Surakarta, Central Java cuisine
- tumis buncis - sautéed green beans
- urap - salad made from spinach, water spinach, papaya leaves, long beans, bean sprouts, and cabbage; sometimes with grated coconut; seasonings include shallots, garlic, red chili peppers, kaffir lime leaves, salt, and coconut sugar; Javanese cuisine
Great! If you have more Indonesian culinary terms or if you have any questions about specific dishes, feel free to ask.
Useful nouns
- bau - smell, bad odor
- bon - bill; caution! bon-bon is not a bill but candies
- daftar makanan - (list, food) menu
- daftar minuman - (list, drink) drink menu
- dapur - kitchen (as a space for preparing food)
- harum - aroma (fragrance of flowers, fruits)
- hidangan - table (in terms of a variety of food), often used in hotels or restaurants
- isi - content, filling
- kursi - chair
- langganan - customer
- makanan - food, cuisine (as a collection of dishes); makan (memakan) - to eat
- minuman - drinks; minum (meminum) - to drink
- masakan - cuisine (as a collection of dishes), cooked food; masak (memasak) - to cook
- meja - table
- menu - menu
- pelayan - waiter/waitress
- pesanan - order; pesan (memesan) - to order
- rasa - taste; rasa (merasa) - to feel
- santapan - table (in terms of a variety of food), often used at home
- selera - taste, appetite, desires in general
- wangi - fragrance (perfume, cosmetics)
If you have any more words or phrases you'd like to learn or if you have specific questions, feel free to let me know!
Useful verbs
- campur (mencampur) - to mix
- habis (menghabisi) - to run out, to finish
- makan (memakan) - to eat
- makan malam - dinner
- makan pagi - breakfast
- makan siang - lunch
- masak (memasak) - to cook
- minum (meminum) - to drink
- pesan (memesan) - to order
- rekomendasi - recommendation
- santap (menyantap) - to eat (used less frequently than makan)
- sarapan, sarapan pagi - breakfast
- tambah (menambah) - to add
- tunggu (menunggu) - to wait
- potong (memotong) - to cut into large pieces
- iris (mengiris) - to slice, to cut into small pieces, to shred
With myself
In a simple budget establishment, when you place an order, they might ask you "makan sini atau dibungkus," which means "eat here or take away." Depending on your response, they will either put the food on a plate, wrap it in a paper bundle, or place it in a container.
By the way, in Indonesia, you can even buy take-out "dibungkus" coffee. However, in this case, you'll likely receive a plastic bag with coffee, not the branded beautiful cups like in Starbucks.
Don't be surprised if, when ordering noodles, they suggest adding rice. Or, when choosing food in a snack shop like "nasi campur," they might offer you noodles to go with the rice.
LESSON 13: What time is it? At what time?
It is quite natural that nowadays, people adorned with iPhones, Apple Watches, Blackberries, and Androids no longer need to ask the question, "What time is it?" when addressed to an Indonesian passerby.
However, the need to agree on a meeting time still persists. Therefore, today we will explore ways to indicate time in the Indonesian language.
Unfortunately, knowing what time to set a meeting with your Indonesian acquaintance does not guarantee that they will actually arrive on time. In Indonesian, there is even a term for such a phenomenon – "jam karet" (rubber time) – a delay, dragging one's feet, in general, a stretchable rubber time. Nonetheless, it's worth a try.
Question: JAM BERAPA?
The question about time itself is asked using the phrase Jam berapa?
It is this word order that is important. Because jam in this case is an object, and berapa is its definition (“which”).
If you ask the question Berapa jam? then it will be translated as “how many hours?”
For example:
Berapa jam kamu perlu untuk siap (mempersiapkan) semua barangmu? – How many hours does it take you to pack all your things?
Berapa jam dari Makassar ke Jakarta naik pesawat? – How many hours from Makassar to Jakarta by plane?
watch (as a device)
time, moment
jam berangkat – (hour, depart) departure time
jam datang – (hour, arrive) arrival time
jam buka – (hour, open) opening hours; jam kantor – (hour, office) office hours; jam kerja – (hour, work) working hours; jam tugas – (hour, assignment) working hours
jam detik – (hour, second) stopwatch
jam dinding – (hour, wall) wall clock; jam tembok – (hour, wall) wall clock
jam kunjungan – (hour, visit) visiting hours
jam main – (hour, play) start of play sessions
jam makan – (hour, eat) mealtime
jam malam – (hour, night) curfew
jam matahari – (hour, sun) sundial; jam surya – (hour, sun) sundial
jam meja – (hour, table) desk clock
jam menara – (hour, tower) clock on the tower
jam pasir – (hour, sand) hourglass
jam pelajaran – (hour, lesson) class hour; belajar – to learn; mengajar — to teach
jam saku – (hour, pocket) pocket watch
jam sibuk – (hour, busy) rush hour, peak hour
jam tangan – (hour, hand) wristwatch
jam terbang – (hour, fly) flight hours, flight time
jam weker – (hour, alarm) alarm clock
Another way to ask the time is:
Pukul berapa? – literally "how many strikes?" or "how many hits?"
This is a more formal and official variant.
PUKUL - strike, hit
pukul besi — pukul besi – (strike, iron) hammer
pukul curi – (strike, steal) sneak attack
pukul samping – (strike, side) indirectly, sidewise
Memukul - to hit, to strike, to knock, to deceive, to conduct, to play a percussion instrument, to hit in chess, to multiply in mathematics
pukul anjing tidur – (strike, dog, sleep) to beat a sleeping dog, to kick someone when they're down
pukul besi — (strike, iron) forge iron
pukul cap – (strike, seal) to stamp
pukul gengsi – (strike, prestige) to strike at one's prestige
pukul lebam mata – (strike, bruise, eye) to blacken an eye
pukul mundur – (strike, retreat) to repel an attack
pukul musuh – (strike, enemy) to strike the enemy
pukul rata – (strike, even) to level
pukul telor (telur) – (strike, egg) to beat an egg
Now, let's talk about how you can navigate if you're asked "jam berapa" or about the time of an event like:
Jam berapa kita bisa ketemu di museum topeng? — What time can we meet at the mask museum?
Jam berapa buruh bisa tiba di rumah saya untuk memperbaiki keran? – What time can the worker arrive at my house to fix the faucet?
The easiest option is to give a round hour.
You can use the clock in both the 12-hour and 24-hour systems.
If you are using the 12-hour system or the 24-hour system but talking about time before noon, it's better to indicate the time of day (pagi, siang, sore, malam) so that the interlocutor does not get confused.
If the time of day is not indicated and the hour is before 11, then most likely it refers to the time from 00:00 to 12:00.
If the time of day can be guessed from the context, you may not specify the time of day.
To specify that an event happens at a particular time, the preposition is not needed.
Jam satu siang – 1 o'clock in the afternoon
Jam tujuh pagi – 7 o'clock in the morning
Jam tujuh malam – 7 o'clock in the evening
Jam tiga — 3 o'clock at night
Jam sebelas – 11 o'clock
What to do if, in addition to the hours, you need to specify the minutes?
If you are focusing on the minutes that have passed after the beginning of the hour, you should use the word "lewat" (lebih). It can be used for both time and spatial orientation because it means "to pass, to go through."
For example:
- Aku bisa lewat rumahmu di jalan ke toko. – I can pass by your house on the way to the store.
- Bapak! Tolong, berhenti! Lewat! – Sir (driver)! Please stop! We've passed (the stop)!
In the case of time, "lewat" can be translated for mental convenience as "and after ... minutes have passed."
Jam lima belas lewat dua puluh (menit) – 15:20
Jam dua puluh tiga lewat sepuluh (menit) – 23:10
Jam sebelas pagi lewat lima belas (menit) — 11:15
The word menit (minutes) can be said or omitted. It will be clear what you mean anyway.
The simplest and completely legal option.
If you forgot lewat, say the time without it. Just first a number indicating hours, then minutes. Indonesians do this too.
Jam tiga belas empat puluh – 13.45
Jam dua puluh dua puluh – 20.20
Jam sembilan pagi sepuluh – 9.10
Jam tiga malam kosong lima – 3.05
Jam kosong kosong dua puluh – 00.20
- to pass, to go through, to drive past
- to pass (of time)
- after something
- by means of, with the help of
- through (crossing to the other side, bypassing something)
- lewat jenuh – (through, saturated) overfed, gorged
- lewat lembayung – (through violet) ultraviolet
- lewat merah – (through, red) infrared
- lewat radio – (through, radio) over the radio
- lewat tengah hari – (through, middle, day) in the afternoon
- lewat tengah malam – (through, middle, night) after midnight
- to pass by, to drive through, to swim past
- to cross borders, to break the law
- to exceed, to surpass
- to overcome (an opponent), to bypass
- to miss, to skip
- through, by means of
- to cross to the other side (of the road)
Additionally, to add minutes to the hour, you can use "lebih." Although in spoken language, "lewat" is slightly more common.
Jam lima belas lebih dua puluh – 15:20
Jam dua puluh tiga lebih sepuluh – 23:10
Jam sebelas lebih lima — 11:05
- more (to indicate exceeding quantity)
- more (to indicate intensifying quality)
- remaining (in mathematical calculations)
- lebih cepat lebih baik – (more, fast, more, good) the sooner, the better
- lebih dulu (dahulu) – (more, earlier) prematurely
- lebih dari tiga kali – (more, than, three, times) more than three times
- lebih dari suka – (more, than, like) extremely pleased
- lebih disukai – (more, preferable) preferably; suka – to like
- lebih lagi – (more, again) even more
- lebih malam – (more, night) closer to night
- lebih pagi – (more, morning) earlier in the morning
- lebih siang – (more, day) earlier, if said in relation to the evening, or later if said in relation to the morning; literally – closer to midday
- not enough, insufficient, little
- less than, fewer than
- minus, subtraction sign
- remaining, leftover (in mathematical calculations)
- mediocre, average (on a 10-point scale)
- defect, shortcoming
- except for, excluding
- after a certain period of time (kurang lima menit makan siang – in less than five minutes lunchtime; kurang berapa bulan? – in less than how many months?)
- the meaning of incompleteness of a property (kurang sehat – not quite healthy)
- less respected (kurang ajar – disrespectful)
- not very experienced, less experienced (kurang berpengalaman)
- less fortunate (kurang beruntung)
- less varied (kurang bervariasi)
- less careful (kurang cermat)
- less competent (kurang cakap)
- less deep (kurang dalam)
- less hearable, less pleasant to hear (kurang enak didengar)
- less liver (kurang hati)
- less faithful (kurang iman)
- less successful, unsuccessful (kurang jadi)
- less desire (kurang kemauan)
- less power, weaker (kurang kuasa (kuat))
- more or less (kurang lebih) 
- kurang meyakinkan*– less convincing; meyakinkan — convincing
- kurang nilai – less valuable; nilai — value
- kurang percaya– less trusting, skeptical; percaya — to trust, believe
- kurang rajin – less diligent, lazy; rajin — diligent, hardworking
- kurang ramai – less crowded, deserted; ramai — crowded
- kurang sabar – less patient, impatient; sabar — patient
- kurang sadar – less conscious, unconscious; sadar — conscious
- kurang sedikit– slightly less, a bit less; sedikit — a little
- kurang sempurna – less perfect, imperfect; sempurna — perfect
- kurang senang – less happy, unhappy; senang — happy
- kurang tepat – less accurate, inaccurate; tepat — accurate
- kurang terima – less accepting, ungrateful, dissatisfied; terima — to accept, receive; kurang terima kasih — ungrateful, ingratitude
- kurang tetap – less stable, unstable; tetap — stable
- kurang tilik – less vigilant, oversight; tilik — to look, observe
- kurang uang – less money, penniless; uang — money
For time orientation with half-hour precision, the following terms are used:
Setengah – half; se- — one; tengah — middle
You can use either the 12-hour or 24-hour system, by adding the words lewat (more) or kurang (less).
But you can only use the 12-hour system if you don't use them.
1. Jam tigabelas lewat setengah – 13.30 (1:30 PM)
(Thirteen and a half hours)
2. Jam empatbelas kurang setengah — 13.30 (1:30 PM)
(Fourteen minus half an hour)
3. Jam setengah dua siang — 1.30 (1:30 PM)
(Half past one in the afternoon)
4. Jam dua puluh satu lewat setengah — 21.30 (9:30 PM)
(Twenty-one and a half hours)
5. Jam dua puluh dua kurang setengah — 21.30 (9:30 PM)
(Twenty-two minus half an hour)
6. Jam setengah sepuluh malam – 9.30 (9:30 PM)
(Half past nine in the evening)
For time orientation with quarter-hour precision, the following terms are used:
Seperempat – quarter; se- — one; per – per; empat – four
Similar to the case with half-hour increments, you can use either the 12-hour or 24-hour system by adding the words lewat (more) or kurang (less).
But you can only use the 12-hour system if you don't use them. For example, saying "quarter to eleven" is acceptable, but "quarter past thirteen" is not.
1. Jam satu siang lewat seperempat – 1.15 PM
(One in the afternoon with a quarter)
2. Jam sebelas siang kurang seperempat – 10.45 AM
(Eleven in the morning minus a quarter)
3. Jam dua puluh dua kurang seperempat – 21.45 (9:45 PM)
(Twenty-two minus a quarter)
4. Jam seperempat sepuluh malam — 9.15 PM
(Quarter past nine in the evening)
1) convert the following time notations in digital format using the 24-hour system:
jam tujuh malam
jam dua kosong dua
jam delapan belas tiga puluh
jam dua puluh satu lebih tigabelas
jam dua kurang lima belas
jam dua puluh tiga lewat dua puluh sembilan
jam tiga siang tiga puluh
jam empat sore lewat setengah
jam tujuh belas kurang tujuh
jam empat empat puluh lima
jam dua puluh satu dua puluh satu
jam dua siang lewat seperempat
jam sebelas kurang seperempat
jam lima belas lebih dua puluh lima
jam tujuh belas kurang lima belas
2) during the day, try to pay attention to the clock at least five times and write down this time in words in Indonesian as many times as possible.
LESSON 14: Villa names
Living in Bali, actively moving around the island or reading social media communities, how often do you come across villa names? Are you interested in translating all villa names that contain Indonesian words? If so, this lesson is for you.
I deliberately skipped names composed of personal names, mythological characters, and geographical names.
Asli - "Original" - 1) initial 2) authentic, original, handwritten (in the case of a signature), original copy 3) indigenous, primordial 4) innate, natural
Atas Ombak - "Above the Waves" - Atas
1) top, upper
2) on, above (when indicating the object of an action) milik atas… ownership of...
3) into how many parts something is divided dibagi atas empat bagian (divided into 4 parts)
4) consisting of how many parts terdiri atas tiga bagian (consists of 3 parts)
5) for something terima kasih atas... (thanks for...)
6) in accordance with something atas pemohonan sendiri (on one's own request)
7) due to atas beberapa sebab (due to several reasons, for various reasons);
Ombak - wave, waves, agitation; ombak bersabung (competing) - raging waves; ombak kalbu (heart) - emotional turmoil; ombak membunga (blooming) - surge; ombak memecah (breaking) - surf; berombak - to be agitated (about the sea), to wave (hair, flag), wavy, corrugated;
Bahagia - "Happiness" - happiness, happy; berbahagia - happy; mambahagiakan - to make someone happy;
Bunga Wangi - "Fragrant Flower"
Bunga - 1) flower, floral 2) floral ornament; bunga angin (wind) - a light breeze, harbinger, anticipation; bunga api (fire) - spark, fireworks; bunga bibir (lips) - beautiful words, subject of conversation; bunga buatan (artificial) - artificial flower; membungai - 1) to decorate something with flowers 2) to crown with a wreath 3) to embellish. Bunga - 1) interest on capital; bunga bank - bank interest; bunga tanah (land) - land rent; bunga uang (money) - interest on capital; Wangi - fragrant, aromatic; wangian - fragrance, aroma, perfume; mewangi - to smell pleasant; mewangikan - to perfume;
Cahaya - "Radiance"
1) light, radiance, brilliance, sparkle 2) gloss, sheen 3) expression (of the face); cahaya buatan (artificial) - artificial lighting; cahaya kemegahan (splendor) - splendor of glory; cahaya mata (eyes) - 1) gleam of eyes, radiance of eyes 2) gaze; bercahaya - 1) to shine, radiate light, glow, sparkle, shining, radiant, sparkling 2) bright, shiny, glossy 3) brilliant, glorious;
Cantik - "Beautiful"
1) beautiful, attractive, lovely (typically used for females) 2) splendid, magnificent; bercantik-cantik - to beautify oneself, to adorn oneself; kecantikan - beauty, attractiveness, charm; mencantikkan - to embellish, to add charm;
Capung - "Dragonfly"
Catur Kembar - "Four Twins"
Catur - chess, chess-related; caturan - chess pattern; bercatur - to play chess, checkered, in a grid; percaturan - 1) chess game, match, chess set, chessboard 2) situation, condition, deployment of forces 3) political course; in some contexts, it translates as "four"; catur dharma eka karma - four missions, one duty (the motto of the Indonesian Armed Forces); catur wangsa - four castes, caste system. Kembar - 1) identical 2) twins 3) pair, matched 4) double 5) duo 6) ambiguous; kembar dua (two) - twins, paired; kembar tiga (three) - triplets, tripled; kembar lima (five) - five twins;
Cendana - "Sandalwood" - sandalwood tree, sandalwood
Cinta - "Love"
love, to love; cinta buta (blind) - blind love; cinta damai (peace) - love for peace, peace-loving; cinta hidup (life) - love for life, life-loving; cinta monyet (monkey) - reckless passion; cinta pekat (concentrated) - passionate love; cinta selayang (at first sight) - love at first sight; bercinta-cintaan - to love each other, to flirt; pecinta - 1) lover, admirer, fan 2) beloved (noun) 3) enthusiast; pecinta alam (nature) - naturalist; pecinta diri (oneself) - self-lover; pecinta petulangan (adventures) - adventurer; tercinta - dear, beloved; cintamani - mythical magical stone that aids in matters;
Dusun - "Rural" - village, hamlet, rural; dusun - an ethnic group in Sabah;
Gemuk - "Fertile"
1) fat, fatty 2) obesity, plumpness, overweight, full 3) fertilization 4) fertile 5) tech. lubricant; gemuk ikan (fish) - fish oil; gemuk mesin (machine) - machine lubrication;
Indah Manis - "Beautiful, Sweet"
Indah - 1) beautiful, picturesque 2) valuable, important 3) artistic, aesthetic; keindahan - beauty;
mengindahkan - 1) to decorate 2) to pay attention to something, to be interested in something;
perindahan - 1) decoration, decor 2) attention, interest 3) value, importance.
Manis - 1) sweet, sugary 2) pleasant, delightful 3) cute, charming, attractive;
manis bahasa (language) - polite; manis hati (liver) - friendly; manis mulut (mouth) - sweet-tongued; manis tutur (speech) - flattering speech; manisan - sweets; bermanis-manis - to flatter; kemanisan - sweetness, friendliness, attractiveness, cloying; memanis - to become sweet, to embellish, to soften, to smooth; memaniskan - to sweeten; memaniskan muka (face) - to give a friendly expression to the face; pemanis - 1) decoration 2) ornament, attire 3) cosmetic product 4) charm; Manis - one of the five days of the Javanese week;
Kakatua - "Cockatoo" - 1) cockatoo from kakak tua - elderly older brother 2) mites (tech.);
Kamboja - "Plumeria"
Karang Putih - "White Coral"
Karang - 1) coral, coral-related 2) coral reef 3) kidney stones; karang berendam - underwater reef; karang gigi - dental calculus;
berkarang - 1) coral 2) with coral reefs 3) to collect corals, to dive for corals 4) chronic, neglected (about a disease);
karang (karangan) - 1) work, composition 2) collection of works 3) composition, structure 4) wreath, garland 5) bouquet; berkarang-karang - fictional, false (about testimonies); pengarang - writer, author, literary figure, essayist; pekarangan - courtyard, plot, garden.
Putih - 1) white, whiteness 2) pale (about the face) 3) pure, immaculate 4) egg white 5) whites in chess; putih bersih (clean) - 1) dazzling white 2) clean, immaculate; putih hati (liver) - 1) sincere, frank 2) kind-hearted; putih mata - 1) white of the eye, 2) disgraced 3) tired 4) irritated; putih tulang (bone) - to die; memutihkan - 1) to whiten 2) to bleach; memutihkan mata - 1) to disgrace 2) to tire 3) to irritate.
Karishma - "Charm"
1) authority, influence 2) authoritarianism, despotism 3) charm, allure, beauty;
Karma Cantik - "Beautiful Destiny"
Karma - 1) deeds, actions 2) destiny, fate 3) karma in the context of Hindu religion. Cantik - see above.
Karma Manis - "Sweet Destiny" - Karma - see above. Cantik - see above.
Kedidi - "Wader" (a type of bird);
Kejora - "Venus" - 1) Planet Venus 2) morning (rarely used);
Kirana - "Ray of Light" - archaic 1) ray of light 2) beautiful, charming;
Kubu - "Fortress"
1) fortification, fortress 2) fortress wall 3) enclosure; berkubu - to defend oneself in a fortress; Kubu - a small forest tribe in Sumatra;
Lautan kupu-kupu - "Sea of Butterflies"
Lautan (laut) 1) sea 2) ocean, oceanic; Lautan Arktik (Utara) - Arctic Ocean; Lautan Pasifik (Teduh) - Pacific Ocean; lautan lepas - open ocean. Kupu - 1) equal (in rank, origin, position); kupuan - social status 2) kupu-kupu - butterfly; kupu-kupu malam (night) - "night butterfly";
Lestari - "Eternal"
1) constant, unchanging 2) eternal, enduring 3) inexhaustible, limitless; kelestarian - 1) constancy, permanence 2) eternity 3) inexhaustibility; melestarikan - to immortalize;
Maharaj - "Emperor"
Maharaja (maharaj) 1) maharaja 2) emperor; maharaja siang (poetic) daylight
Mana - "Mana" - 1) which, who 2) interrogative word in combinations (di mana, ke mana, dari mana, yang mana); mana lagi (more) - moreover; manapun, mana saja - any, whichever; mana suka (to like) - voluntarily, optional; mana tahu - who knows? (rhetorical); Mana - supernatural force in animistic beliefs;
Manis - "Sweet";
Melati - "Jasmine";
Mimpi - "Dreams"
1) dream, daydream 2) dreams, aspirations; mimpi indah - beautiful dream; mimpi jahat - nightmare; bermimpi - 1) to sleep, asleep, dreaming 2) to dream about; bermimpi tentang (about) … to dream about something;
Mulia - "Glorious"
1) glorious 2) great 3) noble; mulia raya - venerable; kemuliaan 1) glory 2) greatness 3) nobility; memuliakan 1) to glorify, exalt 2) to ennoble, elevate 3) to improve a breed or variety;
pemulia - breeder;
Ombak Laut - "Sea Wave"
Laut - sea, maritime; laut api (fire) - fiery hell; Laut Hitam (Black) - Black Sea; Laut Kuning (Yellow) - Yellow Sea; laut madu (honey) - captivating (about a smile); laut muhit (all-encompassing) - world ocean; laut lepas (free) - open sea; laut tawar (fresh) - freshwater lake; laut wilayah (region) - territorial waters;
Pantai Indah - "Beautiful Coast"
Pantai - 1) seashore, coast, beach 2) sloping, inclined; berpantai (berpantaikan) - to wash against (about the sea); memantai 1) to head towards the shore 2) to set (about the sun);
Pelangi - "Rainbow" - 1) rainbow 2) multicolored silk;
Puri Sejuk - "Cool Palace"
Puri - 1) Balinese Hindu temple 2) (archaeol.) city, fortress, palace, castle, chambers, room. Sejuk - 1) cool, fresh 2) refreshing 3) cool 4) calm, serene 5) content, satisfied; kesejukan - 1) coolness, freshness 2) to catch a cold 3) to freeze and shiver; penyejuk hati (liver) - consolation, solace;
Puteri - "Princess"
Puteri (putri) 1) daughter 2) girl 3) woman, female 4) daughter of a rajah, princess; puteri malam (night) - queen of the night (moon); puteri malu (shy) - mimosa, a plant whose leaves close upon touch; keputerian - femininity;
Sakti - "Shakti"
1) Shakti in Hindu philosophy 2) magical power, magic, sorcery, magical, bewitched 3) enchanted 4) talisman 5) sacred; kesaktian - 1) magical power, magic, sorcery 2) sanctity; menyaktikan - to bewitch;
Selamanya - "Forever"
Selama - always, all the time; selama-lamanya - 1) always, all the time 2) forever 3) at most, maximum, for a period not exceeding;
Serai - "Lemongrass"
Serai (sere, sereh) - lemongrass – a perennial plant of the mint or grass family. Lemon sorghum, lemongrass, or cymbopogon;
Sungai Tinggi - "High River"
Sungai - 1) river, riverine. Tinggi - 1) high (e.g., about a building), height, magnitude 2) high (about clouds) 3) tall, lofty (about a person) 4) high, elevated (terrain) 5) high, noble (about feelings, thoughts) 6) high (about price, temperature, pressure) 7) high, honorable (about social status) 8) high-ranking, noble 9) high, thin (about sound) 10) high, refined (about style) 11) higher (about an educational institution) sekolah tinggi - higher school; tinggi air (water) - water level; tinggi awan (cloud) - sky-high; tinggi badan (body) - a person's height; tinggi hari (day) - around noon; tinggi hati (liver) - arrogant; tinggi rasi (constellation) - 1) fortunate, lucky 2) holy, sacred; tinggi raya (big) - great height; tinggi suara (voice) - pitch;
Surga - "Paradise"
Surga (sorga) - paradise; sorga dunia - earthly paradise; sorga ketujuh (seventh) - seventh heaven;
Surya - "Sun" - 1) poetic - sun 2) sun god Surya;
Taman Sorga - "Heavenly Garden";
Tantangan - "Challenge"
1) a challenge to fight 2) a challenge to norms 3) provocation 4) critical remarks 5) danger, threat 6) disaster, adversity, a blow; tantangan alam (nature) - natural disaster; tantangan brutal - a cruel blow of fate; tantangan maut (death) - a mortal threat; menantang - 1) to throw a challenge 2) to provoke; penantang - 1) opponent 2) provocateur;
Istana - "Palace"
1) palace 2) the ace of cards; istana olahraga (sports) - sports palace; beristana - to live in a palace
Wangsa - "Dynasty"
1) family, dynasty 2) noble lineage, noble 3) caste; kewangsaan 1) kinship 2) nobility 3) caste;
LESSON 15: Times. Dates
Good news for those who haven't fully grasped Indonesian tenses yet – in the Indonesian language, they don't exist. In the sense that verbs do not change based on tenses, and the time of an event is expressed using auxiliary words.
When using each of these words, a connection with any moment in time – present, past, or future – can be conveyed.
The usual position of these words in a sentence is before the predicate.
For the past tense (conditionally):
Dulu (dahulu) - Previously (long ago)
Kemarin - Yesterday
Sudah - Already
Telah - Already
Belum - Not yet
Tadi - Just recently
Baru - Recently
Perhan - Already
(N) abad, tahun, bulan, minggu, hari, jam, menit, detik yang lalu - (N) centuries, years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, seconds ago
For the present tense (conditionally):
Sedang - Now
Sekarang - Now
Lagi - Now (in this case; usually used as “still”)
Tengah - Now
Masih - Until now
Tidak lagi - No more
Hari ini - Today
Abad, tahun, bulan, minggu, jam, menit, detik ini - In this century, this year, this month, this week, at this hour, at this minute at this second
For the future tense (conditionally):
Akan - I will
Nanti - Then, later
Besok - Tomorrow
Lusa - The day after tomorrow
Abad, tahun, bulan, minggu, jam, menit, detik depan - In the next century, year, month, next week, next hour, next minute, second
To relate to other events that can occur at any time (relatively):
Pada - B
Sambil - While
Setelah - After
Sesudah - After
Bila - When
Ketika - When
Sebelum - Before, before
Begitu - As soon as (in this case; usually used as "so")
Hingga - Before (precisely in this case; usually used as “border, limit”)
Baru saja - As soon as
Why is the division in these tablets conditional?
Because acting as an independent action with an indicator, for example sudah, will occur in the past tense:
Saya sudah makan – I have already eaten.
But if we make it dependent on another action in the future, then perhaps it will also happen in the future.
Saat kamu (akan) tiba di rumah aku besok pagi aku sudah (akan) selesai makan – When you arrive at my house tomorrow morning, I will have already finished eating.
Indication of the time of action in a sentence may indeed be absent. In such cases, determine the time based on context.
In the upcoming lessons, we will systematically go through all these words in detail, providing examples and explanations of their differences. For now, there's no need to learn them if you're not familiar. Just take a look, and things might become clearer over time.
Today's lesson is dedicated to the simplest aspect: how to denote the past or future time, century, year, and event date. We have already covered how to express time during the day, i.e., hours, in one of the previous lessons.
Century (abad)
Officially, you should use Pada abad…
In casual speech, you can simply say it without pada:
- Abad dua puluh – в двадцатом веке (In the twentieth century)
- Abad sembilan belas – в девятнадцатом веке (In the nineteenth century)
Designation of date and year
The schema for a full date looks like this:
Tanggal (date, number) + date number + month name + year number
1) Tanggal is often abbreviated as tgl
2) The number is pronounced as usual, without order. That is
Tujuh belas – seventeenth in this case
3) Months:
Januari - January
Februari - February
Maret – March
April - April
Mei – May
Juni – June
Juli – July
Agustus – August
September – September
Oktober – October
Nopember – November
December - December
4) Years
You can read the year number according to the rules in its entirety.
Tahun seribu sembilan ratus empat puluh lima
You can shorten it, which is normal for spoken language. As is often done in English, the 4-digit year number is divided into two parts. The first two-digit number is read first, then the second.
Sembilan belas empat lima
If it is clear from the context which century we are talking about, then only the last two digits of the year can be said.
Umur saya tiga puluh tiga. Saya lahir tahun delapan puluh satu. - I am 33 years old. I was born in 81.
If the numeral denoting the year has the digit 0, then it can be read as follows:
tahun seribu sembilan ratus (de)lapan - 1908
sembilan belas nol (kosong) (de)lapan - 1908
tahun dua ribu lima - 2005
dua ribu kosong kosong lima - 2005
Date example:
Hari ini tanggal dua puluh satu September tahun dua puluh sebelas - Today is September 21, 2011.
Tanggal tujuh belas Agustus tahun seribu sembilan ratus empat puluh lima - August 17, 1945.
Tanggal tujuh belas Agustus sembilan belas empat puluh lima – August 17, 1945.
What date? When? (Pada) tanggal berapa?
(Pada) tanggal berapa kamu akan datang ke Jakarta? - What date will you arrive in Jakarta?
(Pada) tahun berapa kamu lahir? - In what year were you born?
In spoken Indonesian, pada can be omitted.
How many centuries (years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, seconds)? Berapa...?
In a question in which the question is asked about the number of certain intervals of time, berapa is put before them.
Berapa tahun Anda tinggal di Jakarta? - How many years have you lived in Jakarta?
In what (century, year, month)? What day? What time? At what minute (second)? Pada... apa?
Pada bulan apa? - In what month?
Pada tahun apa? - At what year?
lahir - to be born
pasangan - couple
merupakan - to appear, constitute; rupa – appearance, shape, figure
anak sulung - first-born child
putra - son
satu-satunya - the only one
berganti (ganti) - change
nama - name
memiliki (milik) - to have
saat - time, during
berusia - aged
ayah - father
terpaksa - to be forced, forced, forced; paksa - strength
memboyong - to transport, carry
istri - wife
menetap - settle, localize; tetap – fixed, constant, permanent
sebagai - as (as); kerja sebagai kuli – to work as a porter
seperti - as (in relation to properties); hidup seperti ini – life like this
penghuni - inhabitant; huni – inhabited, inhabited, to be looked after
liar - wild
penghuni liar - squatter, illegal settler
biaya - expenses, payment
membuat (buat) - to do, create
pesimis - pessimist
keluarga - family
mampu - capable
kurang mampu - incapable, disadvantaged
tumbuh - to grow
sikap - attitude
sederhana - simple
kondisi - state, conditions
tuntutan (tuntut) - requirement, demand
hidup - life
terbiasa - to get used to, to be accustomed to...; biasa - ordinary
masa - time
sulit - difficult
pendiam - quiet, secretive
meminta (minta) - to ask
orang tua - parents
pendidikan - education
diawali - to begin; the verb mulai (memulai) is also often used
masuk - enter, enter, enter
dikenal - famous, to be famous; kenal - to know, to be familiar with...
kalangan - circle, circle of people
menengah ke bawah - below average
kesulitan - difficulty
dialami - experienced; alam – nature, world; alami – natural, natural
mengalami - to worry, experience; pengalaman - experience; lama - old
berdagang - trade
ojek payung - umbrella bearer; payung - umbrella
mengojek payung - work as an umbrella porter
kuli - porter, loader, coolie
keperluan - necessity; perlu (memerlukan) - need, demand
uang - money
jajan - snack
uang jajan - pocket money
sehari-hari - daily
sepeda - bicycle
memilih (pilih) - choose
berjalan kaki (jalan kaki) - on foot
duduk - sit, be in
kelas - class
bersama - together with
harus - to be due, must
pindah - to move
membayar (bayar) - to pay
kontrakan - rent
melainkan - but, but on the contrary; lain - other
digusur - evicted; gusur - to evict
penggusuran - eviction
oleh - by, through, for the authorship, with the participation of, for the reason of, because of
pemerintah - government
tanpa - without
pemberitahuan - notice; beri - to give; tahu - to know
sebelum - before, before, previous, preliminary; belum - not yet
sebanyak - in quantity...; banyak - a lot
lulus - to pass, pass an exam, graduate from an educational institution; tamat dari is also often used for the expression “to graduate from...”
kemudian - then
melanjutkan - continue, stretch, hesitate, send; lanjut - elongated, prolonged
sempat - to have the opportunity, to be able
namun - however
gagal - fail, fail, failed, failed
sehingga - so
pada akhirnya - in the end
kuliah - training (usually at a university), study, lecture
jurusan - direction, region, department
teknologi kayu - wood technology
fakultas - faculty
kehutanan - forestry
universitas - university
LESSON 16: Past tense and a visit to the ISP service center
For those who have already been frightened by the abundance of information in the previous lesson on the topic of tenses, this lesson is about the past tense. From it, you will understand that the devil is not as scary as it seemed at first glance.
The same sentence in Indonesian becomes a sentence in the past, present, or future tense by adding such auxiliary words as (already, not yet, recently, just now; now, still, no more; will, later, and others) oriented to specific events or dates (in the 20th century, this year, May 1, 2015).
Verbs do not change depending on the tense.
As you can understand, the grammar of tenses in the Indonesian language is much simpler than in English. Let's examine in detail all these auxiliary words that allow us to control tenses.
I'll warn you in advance. In the case of verbs, I provide two variants. Without parentheses, it is the base form used in spoken language, and in parentheses, it is the literary form (with prefixes me-, men-, mem-, meng-) that you may encounter in formal speech, books, and newspapers. I intentionally only provide one literary form.
1) Because the lessons are primarily designed for those who need Indonesian mainly for simple conversations.
2) Because if you start learning Indonesian and begin studying verbs in the correct form with prefixes me-, men-, mem-, meng-, they will all seem the same to you.
3) Knowing the base form is also necessary because it serves for word formation. At least for a very important verb form that will be useful to you in the early stages of conversations, such as the passive: di + base form of the verb.
Absolute date orientation
In the last lesson, we already discussed that if we tie an event to a specific date in the past, then the time in the sentence also becomes past.
Saya mulai (memulai) pakai (memakai) internet Smartfren (pada) tahun 2011. – I started using Internet Smartfren in 2011.
Saya beli (membeli) modem ini tanggal August 20, 2012. – I bought this modem on August 20, 2012.
Relative date orientation
(N) abad, tahun, bulan, minggu, hari, jam, menit, detik yang lalu - so many centuries, years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, seconds ago
The date in the past that we specify to refer to an event in the past can be relative. For this, we use (N) number + time interval (centuries, years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, seconds) + yang (which) + lalu (past, last)
Saya beli (membeli) modem ini sekitar dua setengah tahun yang lalu. – I bought this modem about two and a half years ago. Saya mulai (memulai) pakai (memakai) internet Smartfren lagi kira-kira dua minggu yang lalu. – I started using Smartfren internet again about two weeks ago.
Dulu (dahulu) - earlier, first
Dahulu is more often used in formal speech. Dulu is used in ordinary spoken language.
Dulu can be placed both at the beginning and at the end of a sentence.
Dulu saya tidak tahu (mengetahui) tentang tarif internet yang ini. – Before, I didn't know about this internet tariff.
Mari kita periksa (memeriksa) koneksi internet di komputer saya dulu. – Let's check the internet connection on my computer first.
Sudah и telah – already
The action may be completed by the present moment, or it may not.
Saya sudah isi (mengisi) pulse internet. – I have already topped up my Internet balance.
Dia telah perbaiki (memperbaiki) komputernya. — He has already fixed his computer.
Saya sudah pakai (memakai) modem ini kurang-lebih selama dua setengah tahun. – I have already been using this modem for about two and a half years.
By the way, sudah and telah, if not related to time, can be used with adjectives. Then there is no connection to time.
Model modemnya sudah/telah tua. – The model of this modem is already old.
In modern spoken Indonesian, sudah and telah are used approximately the same. Choose the one that you will remember best.
Telah is more often used in formal speeches and newspapers.
But sudah can be used in more situations. It's more versatile.
Sudah is used for questions and short answers.
Kamu sudah bangun? - Have you already woken up?
Kamu sudah makan? -Have you eaten yet?
Kamu sudah bayar (membayar) internet? – Have you already paid for the Internet?
Ya, sudah. - Yes already.
Sudah can be used to mean "enough", "enough" with the suffix –lah
Sudahlah. Ayo berangkat. - Enough. Let's go
If the sentence refers to some point in the future or present, simply translate sudah as “already.” This will make it clearer what time we are talking about.
Aku sudah harus bawa (membawa) modemku ke servis center besok pagi. – I will have to take my modem to the service center tomorrow morning.
Saya sudah mau makan. - I'm already hungry.
Belum - not yet, not yet
If there are no additional auxiliary words, belum alone most often indicates that the action has not yet begun or has not yet ended.
Saya belum tiba ke service center. – I haven’t arrived at the service center yet.
Saya belum selesai (menyelesaikan) bicara (berbicara) dengan konsultan. – I haven’t finished talking to the consultant yet.
The word belum can indicate that some action or process has not yet occurred
Saya belum tahu (mengetahui) apakah model modem ini bagus atau tidak. – I don’t know yet whether this modem model is good or not.
Saya belum begitu lama pakai (memakai) internet dari Indosat. – I have not been using the Internet from Indosat for a long time.
You've probably noticed that when answering some global questions about life and life experiences, Indonesians often answer “not yet” instead of “no.”
- Apakah kamu sudah kawin? -Are you already married?
- Belum. - Not yet.
- Apakah kamu sudah makan (memakan) pelmeni? – Have you already eaten dumplings?
- Belum. - Not yet.
In this way, a person shows that he is ready for such an event or new experience.
Kemarin - yesterday
In fact, in Indonesian official language, kemarin is actually used as "yesterday". But in colloquial language kemarin is often used for events that happened not only yesterday, but also earlier than yesterday. If an Indonesian tells you that something happened yesterday, ask how many days yesterday or what day of the week yesterday.
- Saya beli (membeli) modem ini kemarin tapi ini sudah rusak. – I bought this modem yesterday, but it’s already broken.
- Kemarin? Berapa hari yang lalu? Tanggal berapa? - Yesterday? How many days ago? What date?
To be honest, the same story happens with besok (tomorrow), which is not exactly “tomorrow”. Therefore, if an Indonesian promises to do something to you “tomorrow”, check when this magical “tomorrow” will come.
Tadi – recently, just recently, just now
In Indonesian, tadi most often refers to an action that occurred on the same day before the moment of speaking. However, sometimes it can indicate an action that happened within the last 24 hours.
Tadi saya pakai (memakai) internet tanpa masalah. – Just now, I used the internet without any problems.
If you need to specify when exactly this "just now" happened, you can mention the time of day (pagi/siang/sore/malam).
Tadi malam kuota saya habis. – Last night, my data quota ran out.
Tadi can also be added as an indicator of an object or contact that occurred recently.
Babi guling tadi enak sekali. — The roast pork (that we recently had) was very delicious.
Internet Indosat tadi cepat sekali. – The Indosat internet (that I recently used) was very fast.
Baru - just now, just now, just recently
As we know from previous lessons, baru is also an adjective meaning "new" when referring to objects. Baru indicates that the action being discussed has just happened or recently concluded. Figuratively speaking, it is considered "new."
Saya baru beli (membeli) modem ini. – I just bought this modem.
Saya baru mulai (memulai) pakai (memakai) tarif yang ini. – I just started using this tariff.
Saya baru kembali dari Sulawesi. – I just returned from Sulawesi.
In such cases, baru should be placed before the predicate.
You can also use baru with numerals.
Komputer saya baru setahun. – My computer is only a year old.
Saya mulai (memulai) pakai (memakai) internet Indosat baru dua minggu yang lalu. – I started using Indosat internet just two weeks ago.
When used with time indicators, baru can be translated as "just struck" or "only yet."
Sekarang baru jam empat sore tapi kantor Smartfren sudah tutup (tertutup). – It's only 4 PM now, but the Smartfren office has already closed.
Lama - for a long time
By analogy with the word baru, the word lama is used in contrast to it. By the way, it is also used for objects and is translated as “old”. Before lama you can put sudah (sudah lama), or you don’t have to put it.
Saya (sudah) lama beli (membeli) modem ini. – I've already bought this modem for a long time.
Saya (sudah) lama mulai (memulai) pakai (memakai) tarif yang ini. – I've already started using this tariff for a long time.
Saya (sudah) lama kembali dari Sulawesi. – I've already returned from Sulawesi for a long time.
Komputer saya lama lima tahun. – My computer has been five years old for a long time.
Saya mulai (memulai) pakai (memakai) internet Indosat selama empat tahun yang lalu. – I started using Indosat internet four years ago.
Sudah lama jam empat sore tapi kantor Smartfren masih buka (terbuka). – It's been a long time, it's already 4 PM, but the Smartfren office is still open.
Pernah – already, had to, happened, experienced
Pernah – used for processes that occurred in the past and provided some experience.
Dia pernah ke sana. – He has been there already (she has been there already).
Saya pernah periksa (memeriksa) signal Smartfren di Toraja dan itu tidak begitu bagus. – I've already checked the Smartfren signal in Toraja, and it's not so good.
Pernah can be a brief answer to a question.
- Anda pernah ke sana? – Have you been there already?
- Pernah. – Yes, I have. (Or, been there, had the opportunity)
Belum + pernah, Tidak + pernah — never
Belum + pernah = never (in the past, but maybe in the future)
Tidak + pernah = never (neither in the past nor in the future)
Saya belum pernah pakai (memakai) internet Tri di Bali. – I haven't used Tri internet in Bali yet (but maybe I will try).
Saya tidak pernah pakai (memakai) internet XL di rumah saya. – I have never used XL internet at my home (and most likely, I won't).
Sudah pernah – already
Yes, sometimes two similar words are used in one phrase to emphasize and highlight the reality of what happened.
Kita sudah pernah ke kantor Tri. – We have indeed visited the Tri office.
As you may have guessed, today our focus is on a conversation with managers about internet usage. The dialogue will be on the same topic. The vocabulary will be the simplest, not delving into the technical and engineering details of internet connections and telecommunication equipment.
Words for dialogue
cara - method, way, technique
periksa (memeriksa) - check, inspect
cek (mengecek) - check
kuota - quota
sistem - system
tarif - tariff
bulanan - monthly
mingguan - weekly
harian - daily
nomor - number
tulis (menulis) - write
atas nama - on behalf of, in the name of
betul - correct, true
benar - correct, true
uang tunai - cash
kas - cash
aktif - active
diaktifkan - activated
dari - from (indicating the starting point)
sampai - until (indicating the limit, endpoint)
melepaskan - disconnect, detach, release
lepas - free, detached
disconnect - disconnect
menghubungkan - connect, link, establish a connection
hubung, hubungan - connection, relationship, communication
connect - connect, link, establish a connection
waktu - time
halaman web - web page
statistik - statistics, statistical
kuota harian - daily quota
kuota malam - nightly quota
sisa - remaining, residue
sekitar - around, approximately
kira-kira - approximately, roughly
kurang-lebih - more or less, approximately
pergi - go, leave, depart
kampung - village
sinyal - signal
sesudah - after
pulang - return, go home
kembali - return
agak - quite (used with adjectives); agak cepat (quite fast), agak pelan (quite slow)
masalah - problem
tunjuk (menunjukkan) - show, point
persegi - square
persegi panjang - rectangle
kosong - empty
tanpa - without
teks - text
bagian - section, part
pilih (memilih) - choose, select
pesan (memesan) - message, order
hapus (menghapus) - delete
uninstall - uninstall
memasang - install
install - install
cari (mencari) - search
coba (mencoba) - try, try
kenal (mengenal, mengenali) - to know something, someone, to identify
dikenali - identified
spesialis - specialist
fungsi - function, function
dapat (mendapat) - to receive, to get
tentang - oh
pusat - center
mungkin - maybe
LESSON 17: Present tense. News. Activities during the day
Today we will study words that indicate to us that the action is happening right now. Although the richness of these words often gives them the opportunity to indicate not only the present tense, but also talk about many other things. But first things first.
1. SEKARANG – now
1. Now, at this moment, presently; current, modern present
2. Immediately, right away, instantly
This is the most popular word with the meaning "now" in colloquial speech.
Sekarang saya tinggal di Bali. – Now I live in Bali.
Sekarang saya sibuk membaca buku. – Now I am busy reading a book.
"Cristiano Ronaldo Harganya Sekarang Mencapai 120 Juta Euro" (article headline) — "Cristiano Ronaldo's Price Now Reaches 120 Million Euros."
"Sekarang Semua Ada di Tangan Jokowi" (article headline) — "Now Everything Is in Jokowi's Hands."
If it's challenging to use all six facets of the word "now" that we will discuss, just learn sekarang for personal use. Remember the others to understand them in conversation: "Here it is! This is now."
2. SEDANG - now, at this time, just
Another popular word.
Saya sedang belajar. — I am currently studying.
Saya sedang mengedit teks tentang Bahasa Indonesia. – I am currently editing a text about the Indonesian language.
"Anda Sedang Cari Pasangan? Jangan Pacari Pria dengan Tipe Ini!" (article headline) – "Are You Currently Looking for a Partner? Don't Date Men of This Type!"
"Presiden Jokowi Sedang Hadapi Dilema" (article headline) – "President Jokowi Is Currently Facing a Dilemma."
It has many other meanings that can be explored if you are an advanced learner, speak Indonesian quite well, or are simply curious.
1. Now, at the present time, just
2. When, if, since;
Bagaimana aku bantu kamu belajar Bahasa Cina sedang aku belum pintar bahasanya? – How can I help you learn Chinese when I'm not proficient in the language myself?
3. While, at the same time as…;
Sedang dia mau keluar dari kamar anaknya bangun. – While he (she) wanted to leave the room, his (her) child woke up.
4. Meanwhile, during the time that…;
Sedang dia merantau keluarganya selalu dalam keadaan miskin. – Meanwhile, during his travels, his family was always in a poor condition.
5. While, whereas;
Saya ke kanan sedang kamu ke kiri. – I go to the right, whereas you go to the left.
6. Meanwhile, at the same time;
Pada hari Nyepi pecalang-pecalang saja jalan diluar sedang semua penduduk Bali lain tidak keluar dari rumah. – On Nyepi day, only the pecalang (security personnel) walk outside, meanwhile, all other residents of Bali do not leave their homes.
7. Moderate, moderate
8. Suitable, acceptable
9. Suitable (for clothing)
10. Sufficient, enough
11. Simple, modest, simply, modestly
"Sedang-sedang" – moderate, average
1. To try on clothes
2. To taste
"Menyedangkan" – to economize, to spend sparingly
"Sedanglah, sedang-menyadang" – sufficient, enough
3. LAGI – now, still, still
"Lagi" in the sense of "now" is used only in colloquial speech.
- Tokonya lagi tutup. – This store is closed now.
- Kamu lagi apa? – What are you doing now? (What are you busy with?)
- Kenapa temanmu tidak ikut kamu? – Why isn't your friend accompanying you?
- Dia lagi sibuk. – He is busy.
- Sibuk apa? Duduk? – Busy with what? Just sitting?
Just like the word "sedang," "lagi" also has many other meanings, so be careful not to get confused!
"Lagi" has various meanings:
1. Additional, more;
- Tolong, tambah sayur lagi – Please add more vegetables.
2. Again, once more;
- Dia datang lagi meskipun tidak dipanggil. – He came again, even though he wasn't called.
3. Still, yet;
- Dia lagi berlibur. – He/she is still on vacation.
4. In (some time);
- Dua jam lagi saya mulai merasa mengantuk. – In two hours, I started feeling sleepy.
5. Already, beforehand;
- Dari jauh lagi saya merasa risiko perampokan. – Already from afar, I felt the risk of robbery.
6. When, while (also used as "selagi");
- Menikmati gadis lagi dia berdansa – Enjoying the girl while she's dancing.
7. Simply, just;
- Bukannya mahal lagi mahal benar-benar. – It's not just expensive, it's really expensive.
8. And also;
- Rumahnya besar lagi bagus. – His/her house is big and nice.
9. Amplifying "more";
- Kalau tidak sekarang kapan lagi kita bisa mendaki gunung Agung? – If not now, when else can we climb Mount Agung?
"Lagikan" – Although, even though
"Lagi-lagi can mean:
1. Moreover,
2. Again,
3. Once more.
4. TENGAH – now, during
Tengah also has plenty of additional meanings.
1. Middle, center, central;
- Jawa Tengah – Central Java, Sumatra Tengah – Central Sumatra, Sulawesi Tengah – Central Sulawesi
2. Half, halfway;
- Tengah bermain dia jatuh dan patah jari. – While playing, he/she fell and broke a finger.
3. To express the duration of an action;
- Ketika saya masuk dia tengah memasak kue. – When I entered, he/she was in the middle of baking a cake.
4. Indication of reduction; for numbers from 1 to 9 and those ending in 1-9, reduce by 0.5 (tengah 5 – 4.5; tengah 64 – 63.5); for numbers ending in zero, reduce by 5 (tengah 10 – 5; tengah 250 – 245; for numbers ending in two zeros, reduce by 50 (tengah 1000 — 950), and so on.
- Tengah hari – Noon, midday
- Tengah hari bolong – In the middle of the day
- Tengah malam – Midnight, in the middle of the night
- Tengah tahunan – Semiannual, half-yearly
1. Middle, center, in the middle, at the center.
2. Half, in the middle.
- Bertengah – Halved.
1. To move towards the middle, to move towards the center.
2. To adhere to the golden mean, to take a neutral position.
1. Move something to the middle, center
2. Nominate, offer
3. Bring something to the forefront
4. Express, convey, express
1. Middle, center
2. Mediator, arbitrator
3. Middle, average (among brothers or sisters)
Penengahan – cooperation, arbitration
1. Middle, center, middle, central
3. Partial, partially, partially
4. Carelessly, somehow
1. Half, one half, half
1. Half-hearted, indefinite
2. Half, middle (distance, period of time); Jam setengah tiga – Half past three (on the clock).
3. For numbers and a half; Dua setengah - Two and a half.
4. Incomplete, partial
5. Some, some
6. Crazy
Setengahnya - on average
1. Half-hearted, indefinite
2. Indecisive
3. Partial, partially, partially
4. Carelessly, somehow
5. Neither this nor that
6. KINI - in our time, in our days, now
The word is used for situations when it is necessary to talk about some more or less global processes taking place now. Waktu kini (time, now) can also be used, but much less frequently.
“Setelah Lobster dan Kerapu, Kini Rumput Laut Dilarang Ekspor” (article title) – “After lobster and sea bass, now seaweed is also banned from export.”
“Tinggalkan Flash, YouTube Kini Pakai HTML5” (article title) – “Leave flash, YouTube now uses HTML5.”
1. Now
2. Today, these days, now
Kini begini nanti begitu - Today it’s like this, tomorrow it’s like that
Kini gatal besok digaruk – Itched today, scratched tomorrow (Indonesian proverb)
Kini-kini - now, immediately
Kekinian - modernity, our days, present time
6. SAAT INI – now, at this time, at this moment
Saat (time, moment) + ini (this) = now, at this moment
“Saat ini Minimarket Masih Diperbolehkan Sedia Minuman Beralkohol” (article title) – “Now minimarkets are still allowed to stock alcoholic beverages.”
"Jokowi: Saat ini Indonesia Pada Posisi Darurat Narkoba" (article title) - "Jokowi: Indonesia is now in an emergency position on drugs."
1. Moment, moment
2. Moment, time
Sesaat - moment, instantly
7. MASIH – still
"Masih" in the given context is used to indicate an ongoing or persistent situation that started in the past and continues into the present, with an implication that it may continue into the future.
1. Saya masih tinggal di Jimbaran. – I still live in Jimbaran.
2. Ayu masih belum kawin. – Ayu is still unmarried.
3. Oli di motor saya masih belum diganti. – The oil in my motorcycle still hasn't been changed.
4. "100 Hari Memimpin, Jokowi Masih Gamang" (article headline) — "100 Days of Leadership, Jokowi Still Hesitant."
5. "Apel Maut Amerika Masih Dijual di Bekasi" (article headline) — "Deadly American Apples Still Sold in Bekasi."
6. "Kalau Perempuan Masih Takut Keluar Malam, Berarti Kota Tidak Aman" (article headline) — "If Women Still Fear Going Out at Night, It Means the City Is Not Safe."
1. Still
Masih belum waktunya - premature
Masih di awang-awang – still in the sky
Masih hijau – 1) still small (about a child); 2) young green
Masih saja – still
Masih saja belum – still not
8. TIDAK LAGI – no more
Tidak (not) + lagi (again, now) = no more
But with tidak lagi it’s a completely different story than with masih. Something started, but it ended and doesn’t happen anymore.
Motor ini tidak baru lagi. – This bike is no longer new.
Saya tidak suka makan nasi goreng lagi. – I don’t like eating nasi goreng anymore.
Dia tidak merokok lagi. – He (she) doesn’t smoke anymore.
"Investasi Amerika ke Indonesia Tak Lagi Besar" (article title) - "America's investment in Indonesia is no longer big."
“Uang Parkir Tidak Lagi Lari ke Oknum Nakal” (article title) – “Parking money no longer goes to impudent individuals.”
HARI INI - today, on this day
Hari (day) + ini (this) = today
“Harga Emas Antam Hari Ini Rp 525,000 Per Gram” (article title) – “Antam certified gold price today (is) Rp 525,000 per gram.”
"Mulai Hari Ini, Parkir Meter Harus Pakai E-Money" (article title) - "Starting today, parking meters must use E-Money"
Since we're going into detail about words in this lesson, let's quickly go over the words that mean "time." We can look at each of them in detail later.
Waktu - time, term
Saat – moment, instant, time
Musim - season, period, time, time
Masa - epoch, time, period, term, time, round
Zaman/jaman - era, period, era
Throughout the day, try to track what you are doing. If you know the name of your activity in Indonesian, write it down on a piece of paper or in your phone:
Aku sekarang... (and the name of what you do)
Try to count at least ten different types of activity during the day you do your homework. If this game helps you learn new words effectively, repeat it the next day or any other convenient day.
Here is a list of some types of activities, which may well not include yours.
running - jogging
chatting - ngobrol-ngobrol, ngomong-ngomong
meeting a friend at the airport - jemput/menjemput teman di bandara
meeting a friend - bertemu dengan teman
meeting with a client - bertemu dengan klien
I enter the house - masuk rumah
leaving the house - keluar dari rumah/keluar rumah
cooking - masak/memasak makanan
hanging out with my friends - jalan-jalan/berjalan-jalan dengan/sama teman-temanku
walking with my dog ​​- jalan-jalan/berjalan-jalan dengan/sama anjingku
shopping; belanja - expenses, costs - berbelanja
I think, I reflect - pikir/memikirkan/berpikir
riding a bike - pergi naik motor
riding a bicycle - pergi naik sepeda
riding a horse - pergi naik kuda
driving by car - pergi naik mobil
I’m eating, I’m walking, I’m walking, I’m on the way; jalan - road, path, street, course, movement, route - jalan/berjalan
I’m going, I’m going, I’m heading, I’m leaving, I’m going out, I’m heading - pergi
eat - makan
eating mango - makan/memakan mangga
waiting - tunggu
waiting for a friend - tunggu/menunggu teman
sunbathing - berjemur, berjemur di sinar matahari
I do boxing - latihan tinju/boksen
I go diving, go underwater, dive; selam - immersion - menyelam
I do yoga - berpraktek yoga, beryoga, latihan yoga
I do meditation - berpraktek meditasi, bermeditasi, latihan meditasi
I go in for sports - berolahraga
doing housework - mengurus rumah tangga
I play billiards - main biliar
I play table tennis - main tenis meja
I play poker - main poker
I play tennis - main tennis
I play football - main sepak bola
playing chess - main catur
I play the drum - main gendang/tambur
I play the guitar - main guitar
I play the violin - main biola
I play the piano/grand piano - main piano
playing with a cat - bermain-main dengan kucing
playing with a child/baby - bermain-main dengan anak/bayi
I ride a board; selancar - surfing - berselancar
chopping wood - membelah kayu bakar
painting a wall - mencat tembok/dinding
I'm flying on an airplane - terbang naik pesawat
I dream; cita - feeling, sensation, desire, aspiration, dream, thought, idea, sadness, longing - bercita-cita
washing the floor; pel – rag - mengepel lantai
I am washing the dishes; cuci – washing, washing, washing, washing - mencuci piring
washing a child/baby - memandikan anak/bayi
cut the onion into slices; iris - slice - mengiris bawang
putting on my shoes; sepatu - shoes - bersepatu
getting dressed; pakaian - clothes - berpakaian
I swim, I bathe; renang – swimming, swimming - berenang
sailing on a boat (on a ship) - berlayar, berkapal
I sweep the floor; sapu – broom, brush, brush - menyapu lantai
I climb the mountain; daki - rise - mendaki/naik gunung
buy food - beli/membeli makanan
buying clothes - beli/membeli pakaian
I sing a song; nyanyi - singing - menyanyi lagu
taking a shower - mandi
combing my hair; sisir - comb - bersisir
I wake up - bangun
traveling; pergi - going, going, heading, leaving, going out, heading; keliling - around - bepergian/berkeliling
I drink - minum
I drink juice - minum/meminum jus
I work - kerja/bekerja
talking to myself/with myself - bicara pada diri sendiri
talking to my friend/my girlfriend - bicara/berbicara dengan/sama teman aku, bercakap-cakap
undressing; buka - open; pakaian - clothes - membuka pakaian
taking off my shoes; buka - open; sepatu - shoes - membuka sepatu
I cut paper with scissors; gunting - scissors, cut, style, haircut - menggunting kertas
cutting vegetables; potong – piece, chunk, excerpt, fragment, cut - memotong sayur
I draw; lukis - painting, drawing, image, description, engraving, drawing; gambar - drawing, painting, portrait, photograph, image; - melukis/menggambar
heading home - pulang
listening to music - dengar/mendengarkan musik
I laugh - tertawa
watching a movie - nonton/menonton film
I'm making a video - video/ambil video
sleep - tidur
going down the mountain - turun dari gunung
washing clothes - uci/mencuci pakaian
I dance folk dances ---------- tari/menari
I dance modern (Western) dances ---------- dansa/berdansa
cleaning the house ---------- bersih/membersihkan rumah
cleaning the room ---------- bersih/membersihkan kamar
I smile; senyum - smile ---------- tersenyum
teaching (someone) ---------- ajar/mengajar
studying ---------- belajar
taking pictures ---------- foto/memotret/ambil gambar
reading a book ---------- baca/membaca buku
reading the article ---------- baca/membaca artikel
reading the textbook ---------- baca/membaca buku pelajaran
brushing my teeth ---------- gosok/menggosok gigi
sewing a dress ---------- menjahit gaun
LESSON 18: Relatives
To introduce your family members when speaking Indonesian, you will undoubtedly need to know what to call their position in the family.
One thing is a husband, wife, children. But it is somewhat more difficult to name a brother-in-law, sister-in-law, brother-in-law or sister-in-law.
Let's remember all these wonderful people and try to understand what to call them in Indonesian.
Father – 1) bapak (pak) – father; also used to address non-relatives 2) ayah
Adoptive father, stepfather - bapak/ayah angkat/pungut; angkat – 1) raise 2) receiving
Mother – 1) ibu; also used to address non-relatives 2) mama – used less frequently than ibu
Adoptive mother, stepmother - ibu angkat/pungut
Child (son or daughter) - anak
Son – 1) anak laki-laki 2) putra
Daughter – 1) anak perempuan 2) putri
Adopted child - anak angkat/pungut
Gemini – anak kembar; kembar – 1) identical 2) twins 3) pair 4) double 5) duet 6) double
Orphan – anak yatim
Brothers and sisters
Brother – 1) saudara; also used to address non-relatives 2) saudara laki-laki
Sister – 1) saudara; also used to address non-relatives 2) saudara perempuan 3) saudari
Younger brother or sister - adik; also used to address non-relatives
Younger brother - adik laki-laki
Younger sister - adik perempuan
Elder brother or sister – kakak; also used to address non-relatives
Big brother - kakak laki-laki, abang
Older sister - kakak perempuan
Foster brother - saudara susuan; susu - milk
Half-brother - saudara tiri; tiri – step-native, adopted
Cousin or cousin - 1) sepupu; pupu – cousin 2) saudara sepupu
Cousin – 1) sepupu laki-laki 2) saudara sepupu laki-laki
Cousin – 1) sepupu perempuan 2) saudara sepupu perempuan
Second cousin or sister - saudara sepupu dua kali, saudara dua pupu
Uncles, aunts, nephews
Aunt – 1) bibi 2) tante
Uncle - paman
Nephew, niece - keponakan
Nephew - keponakan laki-laki
Niece - keponakan perempuan
Older parents
Grandfather 1) kakek 2) nenek laki-laki
Grandmother – 1) nenek 2) nenek perempuan
Great-grandfather or great-grandmother – moyang
Great-grandfather – moyang laki-laki
Great-grandmother - moyang perempuan
Great-grandfather, grandfather's father - bapak/ayah nenek laki-paki
Great-grandfather, grandmother’s father – bapak/ayah nenek perempuan
Great-grandmother, grandfather's mother - ibu nenek laki-laki
Great-grandmother, grandmother's mother - ibu nenek perempuan
Great-grandchildren, great-granddaughters
Grandson or granddaughter - cucu
Grandson - cucu laki-laki
Granddaughter - cucu perempuan
Great-grandson or great-granddaughter – сicit; cicit – 1) great-grandson or great-granddaughter 2) squeak
Great-grandson - сicit laki-laki
Great-granddaughter - cicit perempuan
Husband - suami
Wife – 1) istri; In the earlier Indonesian language, you can find a variant spelling isteri, but I will not present it further in the lesson to avoid clutter. Just keep it in mind. 2) bini – also sometimes used, but much less often
Taking as a husband - mempersuami
To take a wife – memperistri
To get married – 1) nikah 2) kawin; the word nikah is considered more refined and sublime than kawin, because the form of this word perkawinan, in addition to marriage and matrimony, is also used for such concepts as 1) insemination of animals 2) crossing
Newlywed, groom or bride – 1) pengantin 2) tunangan 3) mempelai
Bride – pengantin perempuan
Groom – pengantin pria/laki-laki
Married couple – pasangan suami-istri
Divorce – cerai/bercerai
Divorced – cerai
Divorce from a living spouse – cerai hidup
To remain alone after the death of a spouse – cerai mati
Bachelor – 1) bujangan 2) pria/laki-laki belum kawin
Bachelorette – 1) bujangan 2) wanita/perempuan belum kawin
Widower – 1) duda 2) janda
Widow – 1) janda 2) balu
Parents of spouses
Father-in-law, mother-in-law, father-in-law or mother-in-law - mertua
Father-in-law or father-in-law - mertua laki-laki
Mother-in-law or mother-in-law - mertua perempuan
Father-in-law – bapak/ayah suami
Mother in law - ibu suami
Father-in-law - bapak/ayah istri
Mother in law - ibu suami
Matchmaker (the father of one of the spouses in relation to the parents of the other spouse, that is, the father-in-law of a son or the father-in-law of a daughter) - besan laki-laki
Matchmaker (mother of one of the spouses in relation to the parents of the other spouse, that is, mother-in-law of a son or mother-in-law of a daughter) - besan perempuan
Brothers and sisters of spouses
Brother-in-law (husband’s brother) – 1) ipar, ipar laki-laki 2) saudara suami
Sister-in-law (husband’s sister) – 1) ipar, ipar perempuan 2) saudara perempuan suami
Brother-in-law (wife's brother) – 1) ipar, ipar laki-laki2) saudara istri
Sister-in-law (wife's sister) – 1) ipar, ipar perempuan 2) saudara perempuan istri
Spouses of close relatives
Son-in-law (daughter's husband) - menantu laki-laki
Daughter-in-law (son's wife) - menantu perempuan
Son-in-law (sister's husband) – 1) ipar, ipar laki-laki 2) suami saudara perempuan
Sister-in-law (brother's wife) – 1) ipar, ipar perempuan 2) istri saudara laki-laki
Other words
Relative – 1) seorang keluarga 2) seorang famili
Boyfriend/girlfriend (in a relationship) – 1) pacar 2) calon (but often this word also means 1) candidate 2) nominee)
Beloved, beloved – kekasih
Lover (besides husband) – 1) pria simpanan
Mistress (besides wife) – 1) istri/bini simpanan 2) selir 3) gundik 4) gendak 5) istri bungsu 6) bini piaraan
Ancestors – 1) leluhur; luhur – majestic, grandiose, noble, sublime, glorious 2) nenek moyang
Descendants – 1) keturunan; turun - to go down, descend, descend, fall, decrease, subside, subside, weaken, go away, disperse, hang, fall, etc. 2) anak cucu
Family – 1) keluarga 2) famili
Head of the family - tungganai
LESSON 19: Don't get sick!
Key words
Sehat - Healthy
Kesehatan - Health
Kelihatan sehat - Have a healthy appearance
Keadaan kesehatan - Health status
Menjadi sembuh - Get well
Body parts and organs
alis mata, alis - eyebrows
amandel - tonsils
badan - body
bahu - shoulder
belakang - back; also means behind, behind
betis - calf of the leg
bibir - lips
blader kemih - bladder
bokong - buttocks
bulu mata - eyelashes
cabang tenggorok - bronchus
cappilary - capillary
dada - chest
dagu - chin
dahi - forehead
darah - blood
garas - shin
gigi - tooth
ginjal - kidney
gusi - gums
hati - liver
hidung - nose
isi perut - entrails
jakun - Adam's apple
jantung - heart
jari - finger
kaki - leg
kandung empedu - gallbladder
kandung kemih - bladder
kelenjar ludah perut - pancreas
kelenjar tiroid - thyroid gland
kelopak mata - eyelid
kepala - head
kerongkongan - esophagus
ketiak - armpit
kulit - skin
kutil - wart
leher - neck
lengan bawah - forearm
lidah - tongue
limpa - spleen
lipat paha - groin
lubang hidung - nostril
lutut - knee
mata - eye, eyes
mulut - mouth
otak besar, otak - brain
otak kecil - cerebellum
otot - muscle
paha - thigh
panggul - basin
pangkal tenggorokan - larynx
pancreas - pancreas
pantat - buttocks
paru - lung
payudara - bust
pembuluh darah - artery, vein, blood vessel
pergelangan kaki - ankle
pergelangan kaki - ankle
perut - stomach, abdomen
pinggang - lower back
pipi - cheek
punggung - back
pusar - navel
rahang - jaw
rambut - hair
siku - elbow
tahi lalat - birthmark
tangan - hand
telapak kaki - foot
telinga - ear
tenggorokan - throat
tubuh tiroid - thyroid gland
tulang - bone
tulang belikat - shoulder blade
tulang pipi - cheekbone
tulang punggung - spine
tulang rusuk - rib
tulang selangka - collarbone
tulang sendi - joint
tumit - heel
urat - tendon
urat darah/nadi - artery, vein, blood vessel
usus - intestines
usus buntu - appendix
batuk - cough
bunyi dering di telinga - noise (ringing) in the ears
diare - diarrhea
gatal - itching
gigil/menggigil - tremble with chills, chills
imunosupresi - decreased immunity
kegelisahan dan kecemasan - anxiety and worry
kejang - convulsions
kelelahan - tiredness, weariness
kelelahan otot - muscle weakness
keluhan - symptom
kemerahan mata - redness of the eyes
kesulitan bernafas hidung - difficulty in nasal breathing
lesu - lethargy
mengantuk - drowsiness
mimisan - nosebleed
mual - feel nauseous
muntah - to vomit, vomit
nafsu makan menurun - loss of appetite
pembengkakan - swelling
pembengkakan kelenjar getah bening - enlarged lymph nodes of the neck
perih - burning pain
pilek - runny nose
pucat - pale
pusing - dizziness
ruam - rash
sakit dari dingin - pain from cold
sakit gigi - toothache
sakit perut - abdominal pain
selesma - runny nose
sesak nafas - shortness of breath
suara serak - hoarseness of voice
suhu rendah - low temperature
suhu tinggi - high temperature
susah tidur - insomnia
tekanan darah rendah - low blood pressure
tekanan darah tinggi - high blood pressure
Sakit means sick, illness, to be sick. When something hurts you usually use a phrase like:
Saya/aku sakit perut – my stomach hurts
Saya/aku sakit gigi – my tooth hurts
cedera - injury
dislokasi - dislocation
iris/mengirirs diri - cut yourself
keseleo - stretching
lebam - hematoma
luka - wound
luka iris - cut
luka memar - bruise
luka terbakar - burn
memar - bruise
patah tulang - bone fracture
If you consult a competent doctor or seek advice from a good specialist, they will likely provide you with an accurate diagnosis. However, as can be inferred from discussions on women's forums, Balinese doctors often give the most exotic diagnoses. Already a legendary and repeatedly shared story is about a young lady who visited a doctor with a mild and harmless feminine infection.
The doctor carefully examined her and pronounced the verdict:
— This is inflammation.
— What happened? Why? What is it called?
— It's an infection from the ocean.
So, in the case of a visit to local healers, be prepared for the unexpected. "Infections from the ocean" may not be on my list, but there are other, more commonly accepted illnesses.
allergi - allergy
arthrosis - arthrosis
asthma - asthma
bekam - bruise
bengkak - swollen, swelling
bisul perut - stomach ulcer
burut - hernia
cystitis - cystitis
demam - febrile, fever
dengue - dengue fever
diabetes melitus - diabetes mellitus
disentri - dysentery
hepatitis - hepatitis
hipertensi - hypertension, hypertension
hipotensi - hypotension, hypotension
karies - caries
kencing manis - diabetes mellitus
malaria - malaria
osteochondrosis - osteochondrosis
penyakit anjing gila - rabies
peracunan - poisoning; racun - poison
pulpitis - pulpitis
rabies - rabies
radang sendi - arthritis
radang tenggorokan - sore throat
rotavirus - rotavirus
sakit flu - flu
serangan - attack (of illness)
stomatitis - stomatitis
tipus - typhus
tipus perut - typhoid fever
analisa darah - blood test
apotek/apotik - pharmacy
gips - plaster
istirahat - to rest
klinik - clinic
mobil ambulans - ambulance (car)
panggil mobil ambulans - call an ambulance
obat - medicine
obat salep - ointment
obat tetes - drops
operasi - operation
pembalut - bandage
pemeriksaan darah - blood test
penitis - dropper
periksa - check
pil - tablet
resep obat - prescription for medicine
rumah sakit - hospital
sembuh - to get well
suntik - prick, injection
tablet - tablet
terus/teruskan - continue to take
transfusi darah - blood transfusion
vaksinasi - vaccination
When a person takes medication, you can use the verb
Pakai/memakai obat – use medicine
Minum/meminum obat – drink medicine
Words that will help you come in handy when talking with a specialist
buang air - go to the toilet
debar/berdebar - beat (about the heart, pulse)
debu - dust
derita/menderita - to suffer (from illness)
digigit anjing - bitten by a dog; gigit - to bite
digigit monyet - bitten by a monkey
digigit ular - bitten by a snake
jamur - fungus
kambuh lagi - to come back, again (about illness)
keadaan - state; ada - to be
keluh/keluhan - complain
kira - to assume
lemah - weak
nafas/bernafas - breathe
rasa/merasa - to feel
salah makan - to eat something wrong; salah - incorrect
serius - serious, seriously
tekan/tekanan - pressure
sakit/penyakit - to be sick, illness
Other useful non-medical words
begini, begitu - thus, thus
mulanya - at the beginning
nasihat - advice
susah - difficult
terserah anda/kamu - at your/your discretion
tidak usah - no need
Useful phrases about health and illness
Aku ikut nasihatmu tapi aku pusing dan tidak bisa berjalan. - I’ll follow your advice, but I’m dizzy and I can’t walk.
Aku/saya merasa lebih baik. - I am feeling better
Alergi terhadap - Allergy to…
Alergi terhadap jamur - Allergy to fungus
Alergi terhadap debu - Allergy to dust
Apa anda/kamu alergi terhadap makanan? - Are you/are you allergic to food?
Apa anda/kamu alergi terhadap obat? - Are you/are you allergic to medications?
Apa kamu salah makan? - Did you eat something wrong?
Apa lagi keluhan anda/kamu? - What other symptoms do you/you have?
Apakah anda/kamu sedang pakai obat? -Are you currently taking medicine?
Apakah anda/kamu sekarang minum obat? - Are you / are you taking medicine now?
Ayo ke dokter di clinic 24 jam. - Let's go to the doctor at the 24-hour clinic.
Bagaimana kamu merasa? - How do you feel?
Bagaimana keadaan anda/kamu sekarang? - What is your/your condition now?
Ditetes tiga kali sehari. - (Drops) are instilled three times a day.
Diminum tiga kali per hari sesudah makan. (The medicine) is drunk three times a day after meals.
Kamu kelihatan pucat. -You look pale.
Mari kita ke dokter di clinic 24 jam. - Let's go to the doctor at a 24-hour clinic.
Mari saya periksa. - Let me check.
Minum obat - Drink medicine
Mudah-mudahan anda Iekas sembuh. - I hope you get better soon.
Pakai obat - Take medicine
Sakit apa dan apa keluhannya? - What hurts and what are the symptoms?
Sakit apa? - What hurts?
Saya merasa lebih baik - I feel better
Saya mual/muntah terus. - I continue to feel sick/vomit.
Saya sakit kepala - I have a headache
Saya sakit perut - My stomach hurts
Sudah berapa lama anda/kamu merasa begini? - How long have you been feeling this way?
LESSON 20: The Future
We continue for not the first lesson to study what is not present in the Indonesian language. Specifically, tenses. Today, everything is very simple. We are learning words that indicate that some action will happen in the future.
Other than a clear indication of:
1. a specific date
2. an exact time
How else can we signify that an event will occur in the future?
AKAN - I will (you will)
1. This word indicates the future tense. This is its main and most popular function. Akan usually precedes the verb. Less often an adjective. The sentence may include a reference to a specific future moment (when exactly in the future?), or it may not.
Aku akan makan mangga. – I will eat mango / I will eat mango.
Aku akan bekerja dari pagi sampai malam. – I will work from morning until evening / I will work from morning until evening.
Dia aka pergi ke kota – He will go to the city / He will go to the city.
2. This word indicates the intention to do something.
Dia akan ke kota. - He is going to go to the city.
3. This word can be translated as "about" or "regarding."
Akan hal itu saya sudah ceritakan. – I have already told about that.
4. This word indicates a deadline. Akan jam tiga. – By three o'clock.
5. Translated as "in" and serves as a link between the verb and the object.
percaya akan perdamaian di dunia semua — believe in world peace
sadar akan dirinya — aware of oneself
6. Used to indicate abundance or lack.
kaya akan milik — rich in possessions
miskin akan anak — poor in children
7. Used as "for something" or "in order to."
semua barang-barang akan berangkat — all items for departure
8. Used as "because of" or "due to."
berterima kasih akan sesuatu — thankful for something
Terima kasih akan bantuan! – Thanks for the help!
Terima kasih akan nasihat! — Thanks for the advice!
9. Used as - “as something”
Buah berkasa dulu dipakai akan timbangan. – Banyan fruits were previously used as weights.
10. Used as - “usually”
Jika hujan turun dia akan tidur. – When it rained, he usually slept.
SEGERA - soon, soon, immediately
Mereka (akan) segera datang. - They will come soon.
More meanings of segera:
1. Urgent, urgent, urgent
2. Immediate, immediate, immediately
3. Soon, soon, soon
4. Immediately, right there
LEKAS – quickly, soon
The word lekas is used in almost the same cases as segera, but is less popular.
1. Fast
2. Soon, soon
3. Immediately, right away
lekas menjadi dewasa – grow up quickly
lekas naik darah - hot-tempered
NANTI - then, later
"Nanti" indicates that an event will happen in the near or indefinite future, but the exact time is unclear. Therefore, if an Indonesian doesn't want to buy something offered to them, they often don't directly say, "Saya tidak mau beli ini!" (I don't want to buy this!) but, displaying the legendary Indonesian politeness, they respond with a gentle, radiant smile, saying "Nanti." And everyone understands that this "nanti" may not happen at all. But politeness is maintained.
Nanti kita pergi ke sana. “Then someday we’ll go there.”
Nanti can occupy different positions in a sentence.
In addition, nanti can be specified - when exactly “later” something will happen.
bulan September nanti - next September
nanti pagi – later (today) in the morning
nanti siang – later (today) in the afternoon
nanti sore – later (today) evening
nanti malam – later (today) in the evening (at night)
Nanti siang saya menelpon Anda. “I’ll call you later this afternoon.”
Nanti can be used as a short answer to the question:
- Kapan kamu akan ke Jakarta? – When will you go to Jakarta?
- Nanti. - Later, then somehow.
More meanings of nanti:
1. Then, somehow, later, in the future
2. Otherwise, otherwise, otherwise
Nanti dulu! -Wait a minute!
Nanti sebentar! - Wait a minute!
BESOK – tomorrow
Besok saya harus ke kantor imigrasi untuk ambil paspor saya. – Tomorrow I have to go to the immigration office to pick up my passport.
"Besok" is another polite word. In colloquial language, besides its direct meaning of "tomorrow," it is also used for processes that will happen tomorrow or later. Therefore, don't take too much to heart an Indonesian's promise to do something tomorrow. They don't want to deceive you, and they won't if they don't fulfill the promise tomorrow. Because "besok," in reality, doesn't necessarily mean "tomorrow."
- Kapan kamu akan mengembalikain aku sepuluh ribu dollar yang kamu meminjam dua tahun jang lalu? – When will you return the ten thousand dollars you borrowed two years ago?
- Besok! – Tomorrow!
More meanings of besok:
1. Tomorrow
2. Then in the future
besok pagi – tomorrow morning
besok hari – tomorrow afternoon
besok sore – tomorrow evening
besok malam – tomorrow evening (night)
besok-besok – sometime later
LUSA – the day after tomorrow
lusa pagi – the day after tomorrow morning
lusa siang – the day after tomorrow afternoon
lusa sore – the day after tomorrow evening
lusa malam – the day after tomorrow evening (at night)
BEBERAPA DETIK (menit, jam, hari, minggu, tahun, abad) ... LAGI
– in a few seconds (minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, years, centuries)
To indicate that some event will happen after some interval of time, you can use the word lagi, which is most often used as “yet” in Indonesian, but not only.
Of course, instead of beberapa (several), you can insert completely specific values.
Another option. The word commonly used is that statements like “Wait a minute!” is supplemented by lagi and takes on the meaning “soon”.
Sebentar lagi akan datang hujan. — It will rain soon.
(Pada) abad, tahun, bulan, minggu, hari, jam, menit, detik DEPAN - In the next century, year, month, next week, next day, next hour, next minute, second
In textbooks, you might encounter another variation of this expression, something like "tahun yang akan datang," but believe me, in spoken Indonesian, such a lengthy construction doesn't survive. Instead, the following expressions are commonly used:
(pada) abad depan – in the next century, the next century
(pada) tahun depan – in the next year, the next year
(pada) bulan depan – in the next month, the next month
(pada) minggu depan – in the next week, the next week
(pada) hari depan – on the next day, the next day
(pada) jam depan – in the next hour, the next hour
(pada) menit depan – in the next minute, the next minute
Additional meanings of "depan":
1. front, facade, in front of something, opposite of something
2. future, upcoming
LESSON 21: About life and death in one word
Let's turn to the main question of all times and nations, poets, writers, and philosophers – the question of life and death.
If this question and discussion about it don't bother you personally.
If you are very sensitive to this topic for any reason, it's better not to read the following lesson.
Interestingly, in the Indonesian language, the words for "to live" and "to die" are almost the same. They just use different grammatical forms.
Tinggal – to live
Meninggal – to die
The traditional wish
in the Indonesian language sounds like
"Selamat tinggal."
Often in Indonesian the more grammatically and officially accepted form of a verb is not the original form, but the one in which the prefix is ​​used
But in the case of the wish “Selamat meninggal” you wish the person to go to another world. Don't even experiment if you don't want to shock or offend your interlocutor.
Dia tinggal di Jakarta – he/she lives in Jakarta.
Dia meninggal di Jakarta – she/she died/died in Jakarta.
1. To live, to reside, residential
2. To stay, not to leave
3. To remain, to be preserved
4. To be left, to be available
5. To be left, to be forgotten, abandoned
6. To have to do something. Kamu tinggal menunggu – you just have to wait.
7. To remain, to result (in subtraction)
Lima diambil tiga tinggal dua – five minus three equals two.
8. To remain as something
Uang tinggal uang – money remains as money, money is still money.
9. In the sense of "someone is missing"
Semua sudah datang, tinggal kamu – Everyone has arrived; only you are left.
10. To lag behind, to trail behind.
Meninggal dunia – leave the world, die
1. Leave, abandon, abandon, leave
2. Leave, bequeath
3. Keep in reserve
4. Leave, forget somewhere
5. Leave (traces, fingerprints)
6. Omit, skip
7. Refuse, give up
8. Leaving someone behind, getting ahead
9. Miss (opportunity)
10. Not complying with, not doing something
1. (to exist as a living organism, to be alive) – hidup
To live a very long time – hidup lama sekali; lama - old, long
Live a fun life – hidup senang
To live at someone else’s expense – hidup sebagai parasit; sebagai - how, in quality
2. (to live in some place) - tinggal
Life – kehidupan, hidup
Kehidupan manusia – human life; manusia – man, human
Kehidupan social – social life
Kehidupan berkeluarga – family life; keluarga - family, family
Kehidupan suami-isteri – family life; suami - husband; isteri - wife
Cara hidup – way of life; cara – way, way
Antara mati dan hidup – between life and death; antara - between
1. (living, existing) hidup
Wildlife – alam hidup
Living language – bahasa hidup
2. (agile, energetic, agile) - lincah
Living character – karakter (yang) lincah
1. Mati, meninggal (dunia); dunia - peace
2. (to die of boredom) – setengah mati kebosanan; setengah – half; bosan - boring
3. (to die of thirst) – hampir mati kehausan; hampir – almost; haus – in a state of thirst, thirsty
Kematian, mati, maut
To better master the vocabulary, I offer you Indonesian proverbs that tell about life and death in the Indonesian perception.
Gajah berjuang sama gajah, pelanduk mati di tengah-tengah - Elephants fighting each other, while the mouse deer dies in the middle.
Meaning: In a big battle, the small ones become the victims.
Sekali lancung ke ujian, seumur hidup orang tak percaya - Deceitful once in the exam, people won't trust you for a lifetime.
Meaning: Once caught deceiving, trust is lost for a lifetime.
Kalau pandai mencincang akar, mati lalu kepucuknya - If one is skilled at gnawing the roots, the plant will die up to its top.
Meaning: If a leader is lost, the subordinates will surrender.
Ayam bertelur di lumbung padi mati - A chicken laying eggs in a rice barn died of hunger.
Meaning: Sometimes people cannot benefit from their wealth. Killing the chicken that lays golden eggs.
Ikut hati mati, ikut rasa binaasa, ikut mata buta - Follow the dead heart, follow the sense of destruction, follow the blind eyes.
Meaning: Do not yield to desire or temptation.
Putih (white) mata (eye) or
1. White of the eye
2. Disgraced (idiom)
3. Tired (from long waiting)
4. Irritated, dissatisfied
Berputih mata
1. Disgraced (idiom)
2. Tired (from long waiting)
3. Irritated, dissatisfied
Putih/berputih tulang (bone, bones) - die
Words to proverbs
gajah - elephant
berjuang - fight; juang - fight
sama - together with, same
pelanduk - lemur
tengah - average, middle
sekali - once, very much; in this saying it is used as “once”: se- (satu) - once, kali - once
lancung - false
ujian - exam
seumur - throughout life; umur - age
tak - no; colloquial from tidak - no
percaya - to believe
kalau - if
pandai - smart; also used pintar
mencincang - crumble; cincang/cencang - notch, cut
akar - root
lalu - then
pucuk - sprout, shoot, bud, tip
bertelur - egg-laying; telur - egg
lumbung - barn, barn
padi - rice (one of the stages of unready rice)
kelaparan—hunger; lapar - hungry
ikut - follow, participate
hati - liver, but in poetry and poetic speech it is used instead of the word “heart”
rasa - taste
binaasa (binasa) - destroyed, perished, fallen into disrepair
buta - blind
gading - ivory
harimau - tiger
belang - mottling, striping
manusia - humanity, man as a representative of the human race
nama - name
jadi - to be, become, appear, succeed
kumbang - beetle, bumblebee
lalat - fly
bukit - hill
sampah - waste, garbage
taman - garden, park
bunga - flower
LESSON 22: Jumping squirrels, shy cats, land crocodiles and other people
Even if we are not desperate animal lovers, whether we have pets or not, whether we visit zoos, safaris, bird parks with our children or not – animals in Indonesia surround us everywhere. In the evenings, our rooms are filled with the chirping of geckos. Unexpectedly, a mouse or even a snake may visit our homes. And in the early morning, at dawn, nature turns into a living alarm clock, and a bird orchestra greets the early risers, welcoming the beginning of a new day.
Here, you often feel like you're in a living, vast zoo. Indonesia is indeed a country with a rich fauna. It is estimated that around 300,000 species of wild animals live in Indonesia. This accounts for 17% of all species inhabiting the Earth.
In this lesson, we will talk about the names of animals. Those that are found in Indonesia. And those that inhabit the characters of its people. Idioms are provided from the book "Indonesian Idioms and Expressions" by Christopher Torchia.
For this lesson, I have grouped animal names to make them easier to find if desired. Of course, listing all 300,000 species of animals is unlikely in this lesson, but I will mention the most basic ones.
Indonesia is home to a record number of mammals - just over 500 species. And more than one and a half thousand species of birds. Just under half of the fish species found in global waters can be found in Indonesia.
Indonesia is also rich in endemic animals, meaning those that are found only here and nowhere else in the world. Indonesia is divided into two major eco-regions - the western, which is more influenced by Asian fauna, and the eastern, influenced by Australasian fauna. They are separated by the Wallace Line, which itself is a transitional region where both Asian and Australasian animals can be found.
This line runs between Kalimantan and Sulawesi, between Bali and Lombok, as the depth of the ocean in these places hindered most animals from freely migrating from one island to another.
The region west of the Wallace Line is Sunda. It includes Sumatra, Java, Borneo (Kalimantan), and other smaller islands whose fauna is similar to Asian fauna. During the glacial period, the global sea level was lower, and the Asian continent was more connected to the Indonesian archipelago. Animals from Asia migrated from the mainland to Sunda. As a result, tigers, rhinoceroses, orangutans, elephants, and leopards came to inhabit this region.
Wallacea is a transitional zone from Sunda to Australasia. It was not directly connected to any other region. Wallacea includes Sulawesi, the North Moluccas, Buru, and Seram in the Moluccan Islands, the Banda Sea islands, and partially the Lesser Sunda Islands - Lombok, Sumbu, Sumbawa, Flores, and Timor.
The Australasian region includes Western Papua and Papua. The fauna of this region has Australasian origins.
Birds (burung)
alap-alap - falcon
angsa - goose
ayam - chicken
ayam kalkun - turkey
bangau - stork
bebek - duck
belibis - hazel grouse
beo - parrot
betet - parakeet
betok - swallow
blekok - Malayan yellow heron
bul-bul - nightingale
burung - bird
burung gereja - sparrow
burung hantu - owl
burung unta - ostrich
camar - seagull
cendrawasih - bird of paradise
cucakrawa - nightingale
elang - hawk
entok - Muscovy duck
gagak - raven
garuda - eagle
gelatik - bird panache
itik - duck
jalak - starling
kakatua - cockatoo
kalkun - turkey
kasuari - cassowary
kenari - canary
maleo - Maleo bird
mambruk - crowned pigeon
merak - peacock
merpati - dove
parkit - parakeet
pelatuk - woodpecker
perkutut - turtle dove
pinguin - penguin
pipit - sparrow
rajawali - hawk
tekukur - turtle dove
Jinak-jinak merpati
The tame pigeon is a timid person, especially during courtship. The girl is attracted to the young man, but trembles when he approaches. After a while she tries to attract him again. And the ritual is repeated many times.
The expression also referred to arranged weddings between parents, which were common until the 1960s. Jinak-jinak merpati is a woman who agrees to such a wedding, but complains in her heart.
Pigeons (merpati) are also depicted as love birds. Merpati ingkar janji (dove breaks a promise) refers to a spouse who cheats.
Pisces (ikan)
belut - eel
cupang - betta fish
gabus - striped snakehead
guram - carp
hiu - shark
ikan - fish
kerapu - sea bass
koi - koi
lele - catfish
makarel - mackerel
maskoki - goldfish
patin - catfish
paus - whale
piranha - piranha
salmon - salmon
sepat - gourami fish
tengiri - Spanish mackerel
teri - anchovy
todak - swordfish
tuna - tuna
Kelas kakap
Perch class = Top class
Red snapper is a large and bold fish (ikan) that feeds on small fish. But the name kakap, which can refer to any large fish (ikan), also has a negative connotation. Penjahat kelas kakap is a big gangster, playboy kelas kakap is a serial seducer.
At the very end of the scale is kelas teri (teri is a small fish).
Sea animals (binatang laut)
bintang laut - starfish
bulu babi - sea urchin
cumi-cumi - squid
duyung - sea cow
gurita - octopus
kepiting - crab
kerang - mussel
landak laut - sea urchin
lobster - lobster
lumba-lumba - dolphin
pesut - Irrawaddy dolphin
sotong - cuttlefish
teripang - sea cucumber
tiram - oyster
ubur-ubur - jellyfish
udang - shrimp
yuyu - crab
Rodents (binatang mengerat)
bajing - squirrel
bangsat - badger
hamster - hamster
kapibara - capybara
kelinci - rabbit
luwak - mongoose
marmut - marmot
terwelu - hare
tikus - rat, mouse
tupai - squirrel
Tikus kantor
Office rat = thief
The villain hides in an office or floor until everyone has left, then sweeps away valuables before running away like a rodent.
Tikus Negara (government rat) – a government official pursuing personal gain. A policeman on a bike stops a driver who ran a red light or crossed the stop line. The driver settles the matter on the spot. He bends down and stuffs the bill into the policeman's boot, which remains resting on the bike's kickstand.
Rats (tikus) are part of life in Indonesia. They rummage through trash on street corners and crawl through gutters.
Rats (tikus) are cunning and live in the same environment as people, so they become suitable symbols for unattractive characters such as tikus berdasi (rat in a tie) and tikus berjas (rat in a jacket).
Bajing loncat
"Bajing loncat" translates to a "jumping squirrel," but in this context, it refers to a type of thief who ambushes vehicles on long stretches of road. Bajing loncat became a curse for the trans-Sumatran highway, the main artery stretching between Lampung province in the south and Aceh province in the north.
Loaded buses or trucks formed columns on the highway for safe night travel through the forests. Groups of bajing loncat hid behind trees, near potholes, or uneven stretches and leaped onto the slowed-down vehicles. They climbed onto the roofs of buses or opened the rear doors of trucks, throwing bags and goods onto the road. Then, they jumped off and returned to collect their loot. Drivers and passengers only learned about the trouble upon reaching their destination. It takes two days to travel the trans-Sumatran highway with regular stops. Jungle foliage and neat palm plantations line the road between cities, featuring two-story wooden houses. The worst stretch of the road is the Palembang area in the south. Sometimes, overturned trucks blocking the road can be encountered, causing hours of delay. Bandits roam in such areas, and children approach buses at stops, begging.
"Bajing loncat" is also a term for those who jump into the "orchestra wagon." In early 2004, President Megawati Sukarnoputri criticized several former ministers in her cabinet who withdrew from participating in the presidential race. She referred to them as "jumping squirrels" (bajing loncat), describing them as fickle individuals pursuing their personal interests rather than the interests of the nation. One of them, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, defeated Megawati in the elections and became the president.
Chiroptera (cheiroptera)
codot - flying fox
paniki - flying fox
kalong - bat
kampret - bat
kelelawar - bat
Reptiles (binatang melata)
biawak - lizard
buaya - crocodile
bunglon - chameleon
cicak - lizard
iguana - iguana
kadal - lizard
kobra - cobra
komodo - Komodo dragon
kura-kura - turtle
penyu - sea turtle
python - python
sanca - python
trenggiling - lizard
ular - snake
ular derik - rattlesnake
ular sendok - spectacled snake, cobra
Terlepas dari mulut buaya, masuk ke mulut harimau
Escaped from the mouth of a crocodile - ended up in the mouth of a tiger = out of the frying pan and into the fire
The tiger (harimau) is a symbol of pride and strength in Indonesia. In ancient times it was believed that powerful people became tigers (harimau) after death. The symbol of the division in the modern army is the white tiger (harimau).
In the province of Central Java, people returning home through the jungle would say eyang (grandparents in Javanese) to any tigers (harimau) hiding in the bushes. They believed that the tigers (harimau) would spare them if they treated them as respected members of the family.
Poaching and environmental depletion have reduced the population of tigers (harimau). For decades, poachers violated conservation laws, hunting tigers for their fur, bones, teeth, claws, and whiskers. Middlemen sold tiger body parts as lucky charms and as a traditional medicine believed to treat arthritis. Some individuals even harvested tiger penises for use as aphrodisiacs.
Tigers (harimau) have long disappeared from Bali and densely populated Java. Rangers in Sumatra are protecting the diminishing population of these giant cats, but the forests they inhabit are shrinking as developers clear land for palm oil plantations and other industries. Sometimes, tigers venture out of the jungles and attack domestic livestock and even villagers.
Crocodiles (buaya) fare better than tigers.
In Medan, Sumatra, you can find the largest crocodile farm in Indonesia. However, due to high demand for their skin, some crocodile farms extract crocodile eggs and young crocodiles (buaya) from the wild.
According to ancient beliefs, the crocodile (buaya) was once the ruler of the underworld.
East Timor, a former Indonesian territory, holds great reverence for crocodiles (buaya). Legend tells of a giant crocodile (buaya) transforming itself into the island of Timor. A boy saved a dehydrated crocodile (buaya) that washed ashore. Grateful, the reptile accompanied the boy on his travels for many years, until its final moments.
The crocodile arched its back, and the ridges on its giant body formed the mountains and outlines of the island, which became the home for the boy and his descendants.
Jose Alexandre Gusmao, the President of East Timor and guerrilla leader, wrote poetry in the jungle hideouts and later in a Jakarta prison. One of his poems describes how the back of a crocodile (buaya) shaped the mountainous spine of Timor. This ridge provided sanctuary for separatists in their war against Indonesian military forces.
After gaining independence from Indonesia, East Timor adopted two saltwater crocodiles as mascots for its army.
"Lidah buaya" (crocodile's tongue) is an Indonesian term for aloe vera.
Buaya darat
Land crocodile = Playboy, womanizer
Someone who regards women as objects of consumption.
For older Indonesians, "buaya darat" is a scoundrel or a rogue.
Primates (kera)
bekantan - proboscis monkey
beruk - pig-tailed macaque
gorila - gorilla
kera - monkey
lemur - lemur
lutung - kazi monkey, gulman
monyet - monkey
orangutan - orangutan
siamang - gibbon
tarsius - tarsier
Cinta monyet
"Monkey love" = "puppy love"
Indonesians believe that monkeys (monyet) are foolish and dreamy lovers. People mimic the sounds and gestures of monkeys (monyet) if they want to appear silly.
Monkeys (monyet) attract audiences during street performances, sometimes riding miniature bicycles. The animal usually responds to the common male name Sarimin and wears a cheap, shiny skirt. The trainer beats a small drum and says to the monkey, "Sarimin is going to the market." The monkey portrays a woman putting on a hat, carrying a basket, and buying goods from the vendors. Sometimes, Sarimin transfers money back and forth between his trainer and the audience, reenacting a marketplace scene.
Lutung Kasarung is the nickname for a prince who was cursed and transformed into a large black monkey.
This Sundanese folktale from West Java tells the story of a prince's mother who worried that her son could not find a bride. He joked that he wouldn't be able to find a woman as beautiful as his mother. The mother replied:
"Do you want your mother to become your bride? That's disgusting. You're like a big monkey."
The gods agreed and struck the prince with lightning. Black fur grew from his skin, and the young man turned into a lutung monkey. A voice from the sky proclaimed that the prince would have to wander through the forests until he found true love. Kasarung means "lost somewhere."
In his wanderings, Lutung Kasarung encounters a princess, banished by her elder sister and cursed by her. The curse turned the wanderer into an ugly, disfigured girl. Lutung Kasarung feeds the exile, gives her a potion to regain her beauty, and helps her reclaim the kingdom. His assistance helps him win the heart of the beauty.
Another lightning strike hits the prince when his beloved introduces him to her family. Lutung transforms back into a human, and the lovers get married.
Predators (pemangsa)
anjing - dog
berang-berang - otter
beruang - bear
cheetah - cheetah
harimau - tiger
hiena - hyena
kucing - cat/cat
macan - tiger
macan kumbang - black panther
macan tutul - leopard
musang - weasel
rubah - fox
serigala - wolf
singa - lion
panda - panda
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